[al-kal-dee; Sp. ahl-kahl-the]
alcalde [Span., from Arab.,=the judge], Spanish official title, in existence at least from the 11th cent. Since the late 19th cent. it has been used for the mayor of a town or village who also acts as justice of the peace. Originally, however, it designated a judge whose scope of jurisdiction varied and who had administrative functions as well. There were, for example, alcaldes de la hermandad (judges attached to the tribunals of the town federations formed to assure public order and safety; see hermandad) and alcaldes de corte (judges whose jurisdiction extended over the royal residence and the surrounding area). The alcaldes were distinguished from the regidores, whose functions were primarily administrative. In the 14th cent. the corregidores, royal appointees charged with assisting the regidores in their duties, encroached upon the judicial functions of the alcaldes, depriving them of all but minor civil and criminal jurisdiction. Moreover, alcaldes were increasingly chosen by the crown, with only a few towns keeping the right to choose their own alcaldes (these being known thereafter as alcaldes ordinarios). Since the corregidores were often inadequately versed in law, each usually received advice from two trained lawyers, termed alcaldes mayores, who specialized in criminal and civil law, respectively. The office was also instituted in the Spanish colonies, but changed its character. There the alcalde mayor was the administrator of a provincial division usually smaller than that of a corregidor; he also presided over the town ayuntamiento (later known as the cabildo). The alcalde ordinario was an elected municipal officer who frequently exercised the powers of mayor and sheriff and was in some villages the sole representative of the law.
Alcalde is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 377 at the 2000 census. "Alcalde" literally means "Mayor" in Spanish.


Alcalde is located at (36.087956, -106.057081).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²), all of it land.

Oñate Monument Center

The Oñate Monument Center is located in Alcalde on NM Highway 68.


As of the census of 2000, there were 377 people, 121 households, and 99 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 735.3 people per square mile (285.4/km²). There were 138 housing units at an average density of 269.2/sq mi (104.5/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 37.40% White, 0.27% African American, 1.59% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 54.64% from other races, and 5.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 89.12% of the population.

There were 121 households out of which 46.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.4% were non-families. 16.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12 and the average family size was 3.39.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,969, and the median income for a family was $38,250. Males had a median income of $31,375 versus $20,341 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $13,656. About 10.7% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.


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