2 City (1990 pop. 78,122), seat of Dougherty co., SW Ga., on the Flint River; inc. 1841. The industrial center of a pecan- and peanut-producing area, it engages in food processing, meatpacking, and cotton milling. Manufactures include concrete, printing and publishing, fertilizer, millwork and lumber, construction materials, and transportation equipment. In the city are Albany State Univ., Albany Naval Air Station, and a U.S. Marine Corps supply center. The Georgia Pecan Festival is held annually. Nearby are Chehaw State Park and the Radium Springs resort. Albany was the scene of 1960s civil-rights confrontations and was severely damaged by flooding in 1994.
3 City (1990 pop. 101,082), state capital and seat of Albany co., E N.Y., on the west bank of the Hudson River; inc. 1686. A deepwater port of entry, it handles much shipping, has major oil storage facilities, and is a transshipment point for turbines and generators. Though now primarily a government and service center, the city retains significant manufacturing, trucking, and warehousing functions. Manufactures include metal fabrication, machine tools, cardboard and paper products, clothing and textiles, chemicals, plastics, cable and wire rope, and petroleum products.
After a decline in manufacturing in the 1950s, the city undertook revitalization efforts including the Empire State Plaza, a complex of state administrative buildings, convention facilities, parks, and the state museum and state library. The plaza faces the capitol, built (1867-98) in the French château style. The city is the seat of the State Univ. of New York at Albany; the schools of pharmacy, law, and medicine of Union Univ.; the College of St. Rose; and the Albany Institute of History and Art. Among many old buildings are the Schuyler mansion (1762); Ten Broeck Mansion (1798); and Cherry Hill (1768), the home of Philip Van Rensselaer. An annual tulip festival is held.
In 1609, Henry Hudson visited the site, and four years later the Dutch built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post, on Castle Island. In 1624 several Walloon families began permanent settlement at the Dutch post of Fort Orange, renamed Albany after the English took control (1664). Albany was long important as a fur-trading center and was involved in the French and Indian Wars. In 1754 the Albany Congress met there, and in 1797 the state capital was moved to Albany from New York City. Albany's trade grew particularly after the opening of the Champlain and Erie canals in the 1820s.
4 City (1990 pop. 29,462), seat of Linn co., NW Oreg., on the Willamette River; inc. 1864. Many refractory metals are produced, including titanium, zirconium, and columbium. Other manufactures include food products, furniture, prefabricated homes, and construction materials. An annual world championship timber carnival is held there.
Albany is the capital of the State of New York and the county seat of Albany County. Albany is 136 miles (219 km) north of New York City, and slightly to the south of the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers. The city has a population of 94,172 (July 2007 est.).
Albany has close ties with the nearby cities of Troy, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs, forming a region called the Capital District. This area makes up the bulk of the Albany-Schenectady-Troy Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) with a population of 850,957, making it the fourth largest urban area in New York State, and the 56th largest MSA in the United States.
Albany is built on the site of the Dutch Fort Orange and its surrounding community of Beverwyck. The English acquired the site from the Dutch in 1664 and renamed it Albany, in honor of James II, Duke of Albany. A 1686 document issued by Thomas Dongan granted Albany its official charter. This date makes Albany the second oldest city in the state in terms of its date of incorporation, after New Amsterdam.
When the land was taken by the English in 1664, the name was changed to Albany, in honor of the Duke of York and Albany, who later became King James II of England and James VII of Scotland. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398, generally to a younger son of the King of Scots. The name is ultimately derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The "Dongan Charter was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to New York City three months earlier. Pieter Schuyler was appointed first mayor of Albany the day the charter was signed.
In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Albany Congress. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania presented the Albany Plan of Union, the first formal proposal to unite the colonies. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the U.S. Constitution. Albany native Philip Livingston was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. William Alexander, a general in the Revolutionary War, died in Albany in 1783. Several US Navy ships have since been named USS Albany in honor of the City's historical and military importance.
In 1777, the state capital of New York was moved from Kingston to Albany, about north. The State Capitol building was constructed between 1867 and 1899 and inspired by the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France. Notable architectural features include its "Million Dollar Staircase."
Albany's location on the Hudson River made it a center of transportation from the outset. In 1807, Robert Fulton initiated a steamboat line from New York City to Albany. On October 26, 1825 the Erie Canal was completed, forming a continuous water route from the Great Lakes to New York City. The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad between Albany and Schenectady, New York opened on September 24, 1831 and subsequently became part of the New York Central Railroad. Erastus Corning, a noted industrialist and founder of the New York Central, called Albany home and served as its mayor from 1834 to 1837. His great-grandson, Erastus Corning II, served as mayor of Albany from 1942 until 1983, the longest single mayoral term of any major city in the United States.
Between 1965 and 1978, the Empire State Plaza was constructed in Albany's Midtown, west of Downtown and south of the Capitol building. It was, and remains, controversial, in large part because it required the demolition of several historical neighborhoods and the forced removal of Jewish, Italian, Black, and Latino inhabitants. The Plaza was conceived by Governor Nelson Rockefeller and is now named in his honor. The Erastus Corning Tower stands 589 feet (180 m) high and is the tallest building in New York State outside New York City. Four other smaller towers, the Legislative Office Building, the Cultural Education Center (which houses the State Library and Museum), the Justice Building, and the impressive performing arts center known as "The Egg" make up the rest of the Empire State Plaza. The design of the Empire State Plaza is based loosely on the National Congress complex in the Brazilian capital of Brasilia.
A number of north-south streets in Albany are named after birds (for instance, lark, dove, hawk, eagle, partridge, swan, etc.) At one point the east-west streets were named for animals, for instance- Lion (Washington Ave.), Fox (Sheridan Ave,), Deer (State Street west of Eagle), Wolf (Madison Ave.); the only ones to keep their animal names are Elk Street in the Sheridan Hollow neighborhood and Beaver Street downtown.
Modern day Albany consists of many neighborhoods with different characteristics.
Albany is increasingly seen as a leader in nanotechnology, with the University at Albany's nanotechnology program leading the nation. The city is at the center of a 19-county region in eastern New York state branded as "Tech Valley" for the growing number of companies, entrepreneurs and research facilities focusing on high-tech industries such as geographical information, nanotechnology, biotechnology, homeland security, information technology, alternative energy.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.8 sq mi (56.6 km²). 21.4 sq mi (55.5 km²) of it is land and 0.5 sq mi (1.2 km²) of it (2.15%) is water. The Pine Bush, located on the far edge of the city with Guilderland and Colonie is the only sizable inland pine barrens and sand dunes in the United States and home to many endangered species including the Karner Blue butterfly. Four lakes exist within city limits, including Buckingham Lake, Rensselaer Lake, Tivoli Lake, and Washington Park Lake.
As of the census of 2000, there were 95,658 people, 40,709 households, and 18,400 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,474.6/sq mi (1,727.5/km²). There were 45,288 housing units at an average density of 2,118.4/sq mi (817.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 63.12% White, 28.14% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 3.26% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.15% from other races, and 2.98% from two or more races. 5.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Ancestries include: Irish (18.1%), Italian (12.4%), German (10.4%), English (5.2%), and Polish (4.3%).
There were 40,709 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.8% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.95. The median home value in Albany, NY, is $217,100. Home appreciation is 12.70% over the last year. The median age of Albany, NY, real estate is 63 years.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 19.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $33,375, and the median income for a family was $39,932. Males had a median income of $31,535 versus $27,112 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,340. About 16.0% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over.
In recent years, the city's government has invested marketing and financial resources to cultivate venues and neighborhoods that can attract after-hours business, as well as public art installations. Pearl Street, Broadway and Lark Street now serve as the most commercially active entertainment areas in the City. Lark Street is most closely identified with the City's contemporary cultural identity, and is often noted as being "Albany's Greenwich Village". Technically the westernmost border of the Center Square neighborhood and located one block east of Washington Park, Lark Street is home of many independent shops, coffee houses, restaurants, art galleries, antique shops, bars, and a tattoo parlor. Although the Southeastern most strip was rebuilt in 2002-2003 to place new roadways, trees, and sidewalks in front of the new shops in the active portion of Lark Street, some local residents have protested the neglect of the northwestern side of the street (crossing west of Central Avenue), which runs down into the less-affluent Arbor Hill neighborhood.
Summer concert series are sponsored by the City and local businesses at the Corning Preserve, Riverfront Park, Washington Park, Tricentennial Square and the Empire State Plaza. Metroland, the alternative newsweekly of the Capital Region, generally provides a focal point for previewing, reviewing and interviewing local artists and performers, as well as traveling events that pass through Albany.
Last call is at 4:00 AM in Albany, unlike the earlier 2:00 AM in most areas of the nation. This is often attributed to the historically high density of industrial facilities and the demand of second and third shift patrons. New York law allows bars to be open until 4:00 AM (However, local municipalities can override it to an earlier time.) This law was designed to accommodate the thriving late nightlife of New York City, but Albany has adopted it as well.
Albany possesses an active artistic community and culture that is often regenerated by students at the region's colleges and universities, the region's many nonprofit cultural organizations, and by former residents of regional megalopolii such as Boston and New York relocating to take advantage of Albany's affordable, historic housing and commercial spaces. The Albany Symphony Orchestra, Capital Repertory Theatre , Albany Institute of History & Art and Palace Theatre provide outlets for locally composed, created and curated works, as well as traveling exhibitions and shows. There are several small, private art galleries and antiquarian book shops in Albany, mainly clustered around Lark Street between Washington Avenue and Madison Avenue. Also on Lark Street there is the annual Art on Lark, an outdoor sidewalk gallery featuring artists exhibiting and demonstrating their original work. This annual Sidewalk Art Show and Sale celebrates local artists and musicians. Albany also has two independent film theaters (the Spectrum 8 and The Madison ), as well as performing and fine arts venues associated with the University at Albany and College of St. Rose.
Albany is home to a large and important collection of modern art. The Empire State Plaza Art Collection, which belongs to the public of New York State, includes works by Alexander Calder, Robert Motherwell and Jackson Pollock. The emphasis of the collection is abstract work by New York artists from the 1960s and 1970s, including representative artists from the Abstract Expressionist, Color Field and Lyrical Abstraction movements. Glenn Lowry, director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, has called the collection "the most important State collection of modern art in the country.
From Albany's formal organization in 1686 until 1779, mayors of Albany were appointed by the royal governor of New York, per the provisions of the original City Charter. From 1779 until 1839, mayors were chosen by the New York State's Council of Appointment, typically for a one year term that began in September. After 1840, Albany's mayors were directly elected by the city's residents. Albany has had 74 mayors since its inception. Gerald D. Jennings is the current Democratic mayor; he was first elected in 1993 and is currently serving in his fourth term of office. He is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
No Republican has been elected since 1921. 60.68% of the people in Albany are registered as Democrats. 37.28% are registered Republican. The remaining 2.04% are independent.
Albany has been dominated by the Democratic Party since the 1920s, although the local branch was more moderate than the national party, being made up of mainly working-class Catholic families. Daniel P. O'Connell established a political machine in the city with the election of William Stormont Hackett in 1922. O'Connell's operation survived well into the 1980s, as the machine put forth candidates which the electorate dutifully voted for. Mayor Gerald D. Jennings' shocking upset in the 1993 Democratic mayoral primary over Harold Joyce, who had the Democratic Party’s formal endorsement and had only recently been its chairman, is often cited as the end of the O'Connell machine era in Albany. More recently, David Soares' 2004 election as District Attorney has similarly been seen as a breaking of the mold, as Soares was not the favored candidate of the local Democratic Party. Although its founding base Catholics have shifted toward the Republican Party in recent decades, Albany continues to be dominated by the Democratic party.
The Albany City School District enrolls about 10,000 students. It includes Albany High School, the city's public high school. The district also includes the Abrookin Vo-Tech Center High School and Harriet Gibbons High School for 9th Graders. The district also has 11 elementary schools and 3 middle schools. Albany public schools spend $9,227 per student. The average school expenditure in the U.S. is $6,058. There are about 13.7 students per teacher in Albany. The city is also home to six charter schools, with three more planned in the coming years.
In terms of broadcast media, Albany is part of Arbitron market #63 (radio), and Nielsen DMA #57 (television), and is a broadcast market with historical relevance. The pioneering influence of General Electric in nearby Schenectady directly contributed to the area emerging as the birthplace of station-based television (WRGB) and one of the earliest FM broadcast stations (today's WRVE), in addition to the first federally licensed radio station in upstate New York, WGY. WRGB also has the distinction of being the very first affiliated station of the NBC Television Network. In 1947, this region was also home to the first independently-owned and operated stand-alone FM radio station in the United States, W47A. In the early 2000s, the greater Albany market had the distinction of having the highest concentration of FM broadcast stations east of the Mississippi River.
The Albany TV DMA is served by the following stations, providing programming from many of the English-language American broadcast television networks: WRGB-CBS, WTEN-ABC, WNYT-NBC, WXXA-FOX, WMHT-PBS,WCWN-CW, WNYA-My Network TV, and WYPX-ION. All of these services, with the exception of WNYA, also have companion digital television transmitters serving the region. There are currently no local affiliates for any of the Spanish-language domestic broadcast television networks, however the national service of Univision is provided via basic cable TV. Local cable TV operator Time-Warner Cable provides a 24-hour cable news channel, Capital News 9. Christian television networks TBN and 3ABN are available via low-power translator service to the immediate metro area. Unlike many television markets around the country, TV stations from neighboring markets cannot normally be received in the greater Albany area due to distance and terrain.
On the radio side, the Capital Region has three local News/Talk radio stations, WGY, WROW, and WGDJ on the AM(MW) band. All feature a mixture of locally oriented and nationally syndicated programming. There are two Sports formatted stations: WOFX, local affiliate for FOX Sports Radio; and WTMM, local affiliate for ESPN Radio. Both stations provide local sports and sports-talk programming as well as national content. The FM dial is primarily made up of commercial music-formatted stations similar to those in other cities around North America, the largest of which include Pop music station WFLY 'FLY-92', Adult Contemporary WYJB 'B-95.5', Adult Rock WRVE '99.5 The River', Soft music WKLI 'Magic 100.9', Rock station WQBK-FM 'Q-103', Classic Rock WPYX 'PYX-106', and Country music WGNA 'Country 107.7'. Public radio broadcasting is available from two organisations: Northeast Public Radio serves the Capital Region via their flagship station WAMC-FM, and is the primary local affiliate for NPR network programming, and WMHT-FM is another local outlet that clears select NPR and PRI programming. WAMC focuses on News & Talk programming during the day, various music programs and BBC World Service programming in the evening, while WMHT-FM mainly provides Classical Music programming for most of their broadcast schedule. There are no radio stations in the Albany area that provide programming in languages other than English on a full-time basis. A few individual programs in languages including Spanish, Italian and Arabic are scheduled, primarily on college owned and operated stations.
In total, there are 16 AM/MW stations, 30 full-power FM stations, 14 low-power FM translators, 8 full power analog TV stations, 5 low-power TV translators, and 8 full power digital TV (DTV) stations licensed to communities within 30 miles (48km) of downtown Albany.
The Times Union Center, originally the Knickerbocker Arena (1990-1998) and later the Pepsi Arena (1998 - 2006), is a major regional athletic venue located in downtown Albany. It has a seating capacity of up to 17,500 for sporting events. The Siena College Men's Basketball team plays its home games there, and the Center is also home to the Albany River Rats (AHL) and Albany Conquest (af2). The Times Union Center has hosted NCAA Division I hockey and basketball post-season tournaments, among many other sporting events.
The antiquated, run-down Wellington Row is due to have a 65 million dollar turn-around. The outside facade of the buildings, including the Wellington Hotel, will be kept and a new 14-story tower will be built behind the facade. The new Wellington Row project would include both residential and office space. This project has been approved by the city government.
The Capital Grand is going be a multi-story luxury condominium complex on Broadway with river views. This will be a first of such apartment building in Albany, and $10 million dollars in condos has already been sold.