Now called Alalkomenes or Alalkomeni, Alalcomenae in Boeotia was on the south-west bank of Lake Copais, west of Haliartus (modern Aliartos), before the lake was drained. Stephanus of Byzantium refers to the town by the name Alalkomenion.
In antiquity Alalcomenae was famous for a temple to the goddess Athena Alalcomeneis. The epic poet Homer twice refers to her as Alalkomenean Athene (Ἀλαλκομενηῒς Ἀθήνη). The town was by a hill which Strabo calls Mount Tilphossius (named for Telphousa, the spring visited by the god Apollo). Strabo also records that the tomb of the seer Teiresias, and the temple of Tilphossian Apollo, were located just outside Alalcomenae.
Ancient sources preserve three accounts of the origin of the town's name:
In view of the cult of Athena there, presumably local myth in Alalcomenae followed the first of these theories. Pausanias recalls a story that the Roman general Sulla stole the icon of Athena from the temple, and in revenge Athena sent a plague of lice upon him; but afterwards the temple was neglected.
Plutarch, however, refers to Alalcomenae as a "city of the Ithacans". This could mean that he imagined it as being on Ithaca, or merely that it belonged to Ithaca. Strabo's discussion makes it clear that it was an extremely minor village; nonetheless, because of Plutarch's reference one archaeological site on Ithaca now bears the name Alalkomenes.