(born AD 40—died circa 135, Caesarea, Palestine) Jewish sage, one of the founders of rabbinic Judaism. He is said to have been an illiterate shepherd who began to study after age 40. He believed that Scripture contained many implied meanings in addition to its overt meaning, and he regarded written law (Torah) and oral law (Halakhah) as ultimately one. He collected and systematized the oral traditions concerning the conduct of Jewish social and religious life, thus laying the foundation of the Mishna. He may have been involved in Bar Kokhba's unsuccessful rebellion against Rome; he gave the rebel leader his h1 and recognized him as the messiah. He was imprisoned by the Romans and martyred for his public teaching. Seealso Ishmael ben Elisha.
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