The Laboratory was formed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio on October 31, 1997 as a consolidation of four Air Force laboratory facilities (Wright, Phillips, Rome, and Armstrong) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under a unified command. The Laboratory is composed of 8 technical directorates, 1 wing, and the Office of Scientific Research. Each technical directorate emphasizes a particular area of research within the AFRL mission which it specializes in performing experiments in conjunction with universities and contractors.
Since the Laboratory's formation in 1997, it has conducted numerous experiments and technical demonstrators in conjunction with NASA, Department of Energy National Laboratories, DARPA, and other research organizations within the Department of Defense. Notable projects include the X-37, X-40, X-53, HTV-3X, YAL-1A, Advanced Tactical Laser, and the Tactical Satellite Program.
|Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM|| Phillips Laboratory|
|Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA|
|Astronautics Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA|
|Avionics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH|| Wright Laboratory|
|Electronics Technology Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH|
|Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH|
|Material Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH|
| Aero Propulsion and Power Laboratory|
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
|Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL|
| Rome Air Development Center|
Griffiss AFB, NY
| Rome Laboratory|
Griffiss AFB, NY
|Human Resources Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX|| Armstrong Laboratory|
Brooks AFB, TX
| Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace|
Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
|Drug Testing Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX|
| Occupational and Environmental|
Health Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX
While the initial consolidation of Air Force laboratories reduced overhead and budgetary pressure, another push towards a unified laboratory structure came in the form of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Section 277. This section instructed the Department of Defense to produce a five-year plan for consolidation and restructuring of all defense laboratories. The currently existing laboratory structure was created in October 1997 through the consolidation of Phillips Laboratory headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wright Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio, Rome Laboratory (formerly Rome Air Development Center) in Rome, New York, and Armstrong Laboratory in San Antonio, Texas and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The single laboratory concept was developed and championed by Maj Gen Richard Paul, then Director of Science & Technology for AFMC and Gen Henry Viccellio Jr, then Commander, AFMC.
With the merger of the laboratories into a single entity, the history offices at each site ceased to maintain independent histories and all history functions were transferred to a central History Office located at AFRL HQ at Wright-Patterson AFB. In homage to the predecessor laboratories, the new organization named four of the research sites after the laboratories and assured that each laboratories' history would be preserved as inactivated units.
The laboratory is divided into 8 Technical Directorates, one wing, and the Office of Scientific Research based on different areas of research. AFOSR is primarily a funding body for external research while the other directorates perform research in-house or under contract to external entities.
A directorate is roughly equivalent to a military wing. Each directorate is composed of a number of divisions and typically has at least three support divisions in addition to its research divisions. The Operations and Integration Division provides the directorate with well-conceived and executed business computing, human resource management, and business development services while the Financial Management Division manages the financial resources and the Procurement Division provides an in-house contracting capability. The support divisions at any given location frequently work together to minimize overhead at any given research site. Each division is then further broken down into branches, roughly equivalent to a military squadron.
Superimposed on the overall AFRL structure are the eight detachments. Each detachment is composed of the AFRL military personnel at any given geographical location. For example, the personnel at Wright-Patterson AFB are all part of Detachment 1. Each detachment will typically also have a unit commander separate from the directorate and division structure.
AFOSR's research is organized into three scientific directorates: the Aerospace, Chemical, and Material Sciences Directorate; the Mathematics, Information, and Life Sciences Directorate; and the Physics and Electronics Directorate. Each directorate funds research activities which it believes will enable the technological superiority of the Air Force.
AFOSR also maintains two foreign technology offices located in London, United Kingdom and Tokyo, Japan. These overseas offices coordinate with the international scientific and engineering community to allow for better collaboration between the community and Air Force personnel.
The Air Vehicles Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB, has the mission of developing technologies that support cost-effective and survivable aerospace vehicles capable of accurate and quick delivery of a variety of future weapons or cargo anywhere. The current Director is Col John Wissler.
The Directorate has previously collaborated with NASA in the X-24 project to research concepts associated with lifting body type aircraft. The X-24 was one of a series of experimental aircraft, including the M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, and HL-20, by NASA and Air Force programs to develop the lifting body concept into maturity. The tests conducted during these programs led to the choice of an unpowered landing for the Space Shuttle program.
In 2002, the Directorate initiated the X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing program in cooperation with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center and Boeing Phantom Works to research ways to make more efficient use of the wing's planform during high-speed maneuvers.
The Directorate is also a collaborator with DARPA, the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, Sandia National Laboratories and AFRL's Space Vehicles Directorate on the FALCON program, which includes the HTV-3X Blackswift hypersonic flight demonstration vehicle. The Air Vehicles Directorate also collaborated with NASA and Boeing on the initial work for the X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle and the 80% scaled version, X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle, prior to the classification of the program and its transfer from NASA to DARPA in late 2004. The X-37 program is now managed by the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office.
In addition to serving as the Air Force's Center of Excellence for high power microwave technology, the Directed Energy Directorate is also the Department of Defense's Center of Expertise for laser development of all types. The current Director is Susan Thornton.
The Starfire Optical Range at Kirtland AFB, North Oscura Peak on White Sands Missile Range, and the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing observatory (AMOS) are also operated by divisions of the Directed Energy Directorate in addition to their facilities at the Directorate's headquarters at Kirtland AFB. The Starfire Optical Range is used to research various topics of advanced tracking using lasers as well as studies of atmospheric physics which examines atmospheric effects which can distort laser beams. North Oscura Peak is used to research the various technologies necessary to facilitate successful tracking and destruction of an incoming missile via a laser and is used frequently for laser-based missile defense tests. AMOS provides space observation capabilities and computational resources to AFRL, the Department of Defense and other agencies of the US Government.
Directed Energy projects typically fall into two categories: laser and microwave. Laser projects range from completely non-lethal targeting lasers to dazzlers, such as the Saber 203 used by US forces during the Somali Civil War and the more recent PHaSR dazzler, to powerful missile defense lasers such as the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) used in the YAL-1A project now led by the Missile Defense Agency. A continuation of the Airborne Laser experiment is also being conducted in the form of the Advanced Tactical Laser, which is a Special Forces demonstrator project to mount a COIL system in a tactical AC-130 gunship. Microwave technologies are being advanced for use against both electronics and personnel. One example of an anti-personnel microwave project is the "less-than-lethal" Active Denial System which uses high powered microwaves to penetrate less than a millimeter into the target's skin where the nerve endings are located.
Going back as far as 1995, there were arguments that laser dazzlers could potentially cause permanent blindness in targets and these same concerns were revived with the announcement of the PHaSR project which is claimed to be a non-blinding laser weapon. Due to concerns that even low-powered lasers could cause blindness, the Human Rights Watch proposed that all tactical laser weapons should be scrapped and research stopped by all interested governments. The Active Denial System has also been the target of Amnesty International as well as, less directly, a United Nations special rapporteur as being a potential weapon of torture.
The Information Directorate has contributed research to a number of technologies which have been deployed in the field. These projects include collaboration with other agencies in the development of ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, as well as technologies used in the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System which is a key aspect of theater command and control for combat commanders. The Directorate also collaborated with the Department of Justice performing research on voice stress analysis technologies.
In 2003, the Directorate announced a new manufacturing method for use producing the turbine exhaust casing for the F119 jet engine used on the F-22 Raptor stealth fighter which will result in an estimated savings of 35% of the cost while also improving the durability. In collaboration with Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, the Directorate helped develop a new laser-based ultrasonic scanner to inspect composite parts also for use on the F-22. The Directorate also developed an advanced thermoplastic composite material for use in the landing gear doors on the F-22. In 2008, the Air Force announced that the Directorate had developed a method of using fabric made of fiber optic material in a friend or foe identification system.
Notable projects which have been made public include the GBU-28 "bunker-buster" bomb which debuted during the 1991 Persian Gulf War in Iraq and took only 17 days from concept to first deployment. The Directorate also developed the GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb which was deployed during the 2003 invasion of Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom and was the largest non-nuclear air-delivered munitions at that time.
The mission of the Propulsion Directorate, located at Wright-Patterson AFB and Edwards AFB, is "to create and transition propulsion and power technology for military dominance of air and space." The current Director of the Propulsion Directorate is William Borger. Research areas range from experimental rocket propulsion to developing the first ever lithium-ion main aircraft battery for use in the B-2 stealth bomber. At Edwards AFB, the Directorate's test area is located east of Rogers Lake.
The Propulsion Directorate was formed through the merger of the aerospace propulsion section at Wright Laboratory and the space propulsion section at Phillips Laboratory. Each section, both before and after the merger, has played a significant role in past and present propulsion systems. Prior to the development of Project Apollo by NASA, the Air Force worked on the development and testing of the F-1 rocket engine used to power the Saturn V rocket. The facilities for testing rockets are frequently used for testing new rocket engines including the RS-68 rocket engine developed for use on the Delta IV launch vehicle. The space propulsion area also develops technologies for use in satellites on-orbit to alter their orbits. An AFRL-developed experimental Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) arcjet was flown on the ARGOS satellite in 1999 as part of the Air Force Space Test Program.
The Directorate currently manages the X-51A program, which is developing a scramjet demonstration vehicle. The X-51 program is working to develop a flight demonstrator for a hypersonic cruise missile which could reach anywhere on the globe in an hour. In January 2008, the Directorate used a modified Scaled Composites Long-EZ aircraft to demonstrate that a pulse detonation engine could successfully power flight. That aircraft has now been transferred to the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB for display.
The Directorate has contributed significantly to the Integrated Structure is Sensor (ISIS) project managed by DARPA which is a project to develop a missile tracking airship. In June 2008, the Air Force announced that scientists working for the Sensors Directorate had demonstrated transparent transistors. These could eventually be used to develop technologies such as "video image displays and coatings for windows, visors and windshields; electrical interconnects for future integrated multi-mode, remote sensing, focal plane arrays; high-speed microwave devices and circuits for telecommunications and radar transceivers; and semi-transparent, touch-sensitive screens for emerging multi-touch interface technologies.
The mission of the Space Vehicles Directorate is to develop and transition space technologies for more effective, more affordable warfighter missions. In addition to the Directorate headquarters at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico and an additional research facility at Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) located near Gakona, Alaska is also jointly operated by the Space Vehicles Directorate as well as DARPA, the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and universities to conduct ionospheric research. The current Director is Col Bradley Smith. The Battlespace Environment division currently located at Hanscom AFB is scheduled to move to Kirtland AFB under the Defense Base Realignment and Closure, 2005 Commission.
The IBM RAD6000 radiation hardened single board computer, now produced by BAE Systems, was initially developed in a collaboration with the Space Electronics and Protection Branch and IBM Federal Systems and is now used on nearly 200 satellites and robotic spacecraft, including on the twin Mars Exploration Rovers— Spirit and Opportunity. In November 2005, the AFRL XSS-11 satellite demonstrator received Popular Science's "Best of What's New" award in the Aviation and Space category. The Space Vehicles Directorate is also a leading collaborator in the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space Office's Tactical Satellite Program and served as program manager for the development of TacSat-2, TacSat-3, and is current program manager for the development of TacSat-5. They also have contributed experimental sensors to TacSat-4 which is managed by the NRL's Center for Space Technology.
The University Nanosatellite Program, a satellite design and fabrication competition for universities jointly administered by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), AFOSR, AFRL, and the Space Development and Test Wing, is also managed by the Space Vehicles Directorate's Spacecraft Technology division. The fourth iteration of the competition was completed in March 2007 with the selection of Cornell University's CUSat as the winner. Previous winners of the competition were University of Texas at Austin's Formation Autonomy Spacecraft with Thrust, Relnav, Attitude, and Crosslink (FASTRAC) for Nanosat-3 and the joint 3 Corner Satellite (3CS) project by the University of Colorado at Boulder, Arizona State University and New Mexico State University for Nanosat-2. , only the 3CS spacecraft has launched, however FASTRAC has a launch tentatively scheduled for December 2009.
The Directorate has indirectly faced significant controversy over the HAARP project. While the project claims to be developed only for studying the effects of ionospheric disruption on communications, navigation, and power systems, many suspect it of being developed as a prototype for a "Star Wars" type of weapon system. Still others are more concerned with the environmental impact to migratory birds of beaming thousands of watts of power into the atmosphere. However one thing which all sides can agree on is the shroud of secrecy around the project and the government's attempts to cover up information.