See P. Malfetone and M. Mantell, The High Performance Heart (1991).
System of physical conditioning for increasing the efficiency of the body's intake of oxygen. Aerobic exercises (e.g., running, jogging, swimming, dancing) stimulate heart and lung activity. To produce a benefit, aerobic training must raise the heart rate (pulse) to the exerciser's target level for at least 20 minutes and include at least three sessions a week. The concept of aerobics was pioneered by Kenneth H. Cooper and popularized in his books Aerobics (1968) and The Aerobics Way (1977).
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Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor, although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a wide variety of aerobic classes for participants to take. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class. The current Australian national champion is Kenji Fujihara.