The Republic of Adygea (Респу́блика Адыге́я, adɨ'ɟeja; , Adyge Respublik) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. The direct transliteration of the republic's name is Respublika Adygeya. Other ways of transliterating the republic's name include Adygeya and Adyghea.
Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, in the territories of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.
It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.
On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The first president of Adygea was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected in January 1992. From 2002 to 2007 Hazret Sovmen was president. He, and most of the rest of the political elite in Adygea, are Adyghes. As a reaction to that, an organisation calling itself the Union of Slavs was established, claiming that ethnic Russians are discriminated against in Adygea. They advocate the merger of Adygea with Krasnodar Krai, but have so far have had little support for that proposition from the Russian government.
The current president, Aslan Tkhakushinov (since January 13, 2007), succeeded Hazret Sovmen, appointed by Vladimir Putin although he received only 2% of the vote in 2002. There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase—not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.
Adigea's constitution was adopted on May 14, 1995.
Adigea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and five urban-type settlements. Municipally, Adigea is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.
|1926 census||1939 census||1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census|
|Adyghe||50,821 (44.8%)||55,048 (22.8%)||65,908 (23.2%)||81,478 (21.1%)||86,388 (21.4%)||95,439 (22.1%)||108,115 (24.2%)|
|Russians||29,102 (25.6%)||171,960 (71.1%)||200,492 (70.4%)||276,537 (71.7%)||285,626 (70.6%)||293,640 (68.0%)||288,280 (64.5%)|
|Armenians||738 (0.7%)||2,348 (1.0%)||3,013 (1.1%)||5,217 (1.4%)||6,359 (1.6%)||10,460 (2.4%)||15,268 (3.4%)|
|Ukrainians||26,405 (23.3%)||6,130 (2.5%)||7,988 (2.8%)||11,214 (2.9%)||12,078 (3.0%)||13,755 (3.2%)||9,091 (2.0%)|
|Others||6,415 (5.7%)||6,313 (2.6%)||7,289 (2.6%)||11,198 (2.9%)||13,939 (3.4%)||18,752 (4.3%)||26,355 (5.9%)|
Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.
There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.