Ge (Cyrillic)

Ge or He (Г, г, italics: Г, г) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing /g/ or /ɦ/ in different languages.

It arose directly from the Greek letter gamma and both capital and small Ge look like the capital letter gamma.

In standard Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian languages Ge always represents voiced velar plosive /g/, i.e., it is pronounced like the G in English go.

In standard Russian, it represents a voiced velar plosive except when it is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant and represents [gʲ] before a palatalizing vowel. Also, in some masculine genitive and accusative case word endings, it represents /v/ when found between two vowels. In south-western Russia, the sound becomes a fricative [ɣ], and sometimes [ɦ] in regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine. It is acceptable to pronounce certain Russian words with [ɣ] (referred to as Ukrainian "г"): Бог, богатый, благо, Господь, although, not all speakers use or agree with this. This sound is normally considered non-standard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. Бог (in nominative case) is always pronounced /box/.

In the adjective/pronoun ending -ого, -его letter г is pronounced as [v] (Russian only), including the word "сегодня" (from "сего дня") - "today" .

Letter г is devoiced to to [x], not to [k] in front of letter "к" in Russian in 2 words: "мягкий" and "лёгкий" and all the derivatives where "гк" are spelled together.

In the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages it is called He, and represents a voiced glottal fricative /ɦ/ ()—a voiced counterpart of the English h.

In Ukrainian, a voiced velar plosive is rarely present, and when present it is to be written with the Ukrainian letter ge with upturn (Ґ, ґ). In the Belarusian language, it was supposedly more frequent (to render words borrowed from Polish and Russian), but during the twentieth century the distinction in usage blurred significantly. Reintroduction of ge into the Belarusian alphabet is only proposed by some linguists and not supported officially.

Code positions

Character encoding Case Decimal Hexadecimal Octal Binary
Unicode Capital 1043 0413 002023 0000010000010011
Small 1075 0433 002063 0000010000110011
ISO 8859-5 Capital 179 b3 263 0010110011
Small 211 d3 323 0011010011
KOI 8 Capital 231 e7 347 0011100111
Small 199 c7 307 0011000111
Windows 1251 Capital 195 c3 303 0011000011
Small 227 e3 343 0011100011

Its HTML entities are: Г or Г for capital and г or г for small letter.


See also

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