In most cases the outcome of a fetus with CCAM is very good. However in a rare few cases the cystic mass grows so large as to limit the growth of the surrounding lung and cause pressure against the heart. In these situations, the CCAM can be life-threatening for the fetus.
CCAMS are classified into three different types based largely on their gross appearance. Type I has large (>2 cm) multiloculated cysts. Type II has smaller uniform cysts. Type III is not grossly cystic, referred to as the "adenomatoid" type. Microscopically, the lesions are not true cysts, but communicate with the surrounding parenchyma.
Very large cystic masses might pose a danger during birth because of the airway compression. In this situation, a special surgical type of delivery called the EXIT procedure may be used.
In rare extreme cases, where fetus's heart is in danger, fetal surgery can be performed to remove the CCAM. If non-immune hydrops fetalis develop, there is a near universal mortality of the fetus. Fetal surgery can improve the survival percentage up to 50-60%.
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