An adding machine is a type of calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations. In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipment until they were phased out in favor of personal computers, beginning in about 1985. The machines were rarely seen after the year 2000.
William Burrgough built the first automatic calculator called the "Calculating Clock" in 1623. Another machine was built by French mathematician Blaise Pascal in 1642. However they didn't gain widespread use until Burroughs and Felt introduced machines in the 1880s.
Subtraction was impossible, except by adding the complement of a number (for instance, subtract $2.50 by adding $9,997.50).
Multiplication was a simple process of keying in the numbers one or more columns to the left and repeating the "addition" process. For example, to multiply $34.72 by 102, key in 3472, pull crank, repeat once more. Wheels show 6944. Key in 3472(00), pull crank. Wheels now show 354144, or $3,541.44
A later adding machine, called the comptometer, did not require that a crank be pulled to add. Numbers were input simply by pressing keys. The machine was thus driven by finger power. Multiplication was similar to that on the adding machine, but users would "form" up their fingers over the keys to be pressed and press them down the multiple of times required. Using the above example, four fingers would be used to press down twice on the 3 (fourth column),4 (third column), 7(second column) and 2 (first column) keys. That finger shape would then move left two columns and press once. Usually a small crank near the wheels would be used to zero them.
Some adding machines were electromechanical — an old-style mechanism, but driven by electric power.
Some "ten-key" machines had input of numbers as on a modern calculator -- 30.72 was input as "3", "0", "7", "2". These machines could subtract as well as add. Some could multiply and divide, although including these operations made the machine more complex. Those that could multiply, used a form of the old adding machine multiplication method. Using the previous example of multiplying $34.72 by 102, the amount was keyed in, then the 2 key in the "multiplication" key column was pressed. The machine cycled twice, then tabulated the adding mechanism below the keyboard one column to the right. The number keys remained locked down on the keyboard. The user now pressed the multiplication "0" key which caused tabulation of the adding mechanism one more column to the right, but did not cycle the machine. Now the user pressed the multiplication "1" key. The machine cycled once. To see the total the user was required to press a "Total" key and the machine would print the result on a paper tape, release the locked down keys, reset the adding mechanism to zero and tabulate it back to its home position.
Modern adding machines are like simple calculators. They often have a different input system, though.
|To figure out this:||Type this on the adding machine:|
|2+17+5=?||2 + 17 + 5 + T|
|19-7=?||19 + 7 - T|
|38-24+10=?||38 + 24 - 10 + T|
|7×6=?||7 × 6 =|
|18/3=?||18 ÷ 3 =|
|(1.99×3)+(.79×8)+(4.29×6)=?||1.99 × 3 = + .79 × 8 = + 4.29 × 6 = + T|
William Seward Burroughs received a patent for his adding machine on August 21, 1888. He was a founder of American Arithmometer Company, which became Burroughs Corporation and evolved to produce electronic billing machines and mainframes, and eventually merged with Sperry to form Unisys. The grandson of the inventor of the adding machine is Beat author William S. Burroughs; a collection of his essays is called The Adding Machine.