Definitions

Addams

Addams

[ad-uhmz]
Addams, Charles Samuel, 1912-88, American cartoonist, b. Westfield, N.J. Beginning in 1932, Addams's work appeared regularly in the New Yorker, to which he eventually contributed more than 1,300 cartoons. Members of a ghoulish family were recurring figures in his subject matter. Famed for their wit, fantasy, and sense of the macabre, his cartoons are collected in Drawn and Quartered (1942), Addams and Evil (1947), Monster Rally (1950), Home Bodies (1954), Black Maria (1960), Charles Addams' Mother Goose (1967), My Crowd (1970), and The World of Charles Addams (1991). Addams's characters also have been the basis for television series and motion pictures.

See biography by L. H. Davis (2006).

Addams, Jane, 1860-1935, American social worker, b. Cedarville, Ill., grad. Rockford College, 1881. In 1889, with Ellen Gates Starr, she founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in the United States (see settlement house). Based on the university settlements begun in England by Samuel Barnett, Hull House served as a community center for the neighborhood poor and later as a center for social reform activities. It was important in Chicago civic affairs and had an influence on the settlement movement throughout the country. An active reformer throughout her career, Jane Addams was a leader in the woman's suffrage and pacifist (see pacifism) movements, and was a strong opponent of the Spanish-American War. She was the recipient (jointly with Nicholas Murray Butler) of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. Her books on social questions include The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909), A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912), and Peace and Bread in Time of War (1922).

See her autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910) and The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House (1930); the selected works in The Jane Addams Reader (ed. by J. B. Elshtain, 2001); biographies by J. W. Linn, her nephew (1935), A. F. Davis (1973), G. Diliberto (1999), and L. W. Knight (2005); studies by D. Levine (1971) and J. B. Elshtain (2001).

(born Sept. 6, 1860, Cedarville, Ill., U.S.—died May 21, 1935, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social reformer. Addams graduated from Rockford Female Seminary in Illinois in 1881 and was granted a degree the following year when the institution became Rockford College. During a trip to Europe in 1887–88 she visited the Toynbee Hall settlement house in London, which sparked her interest in social reform. Determined to create something like Toynbee Hall in the U.S., in 1889 she cofounded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first settlement houses in North America to provide practical services and educational opportunities for the poor. She subsequently championed social reforms such as juvenile-court law, justice for immigrants and African Americans, worker's rights and compensation, and women's suffrage. In 1910 she became the first female president of the National Conference of Social Work. An ardent pacifist, she served in 1915 as chair of the International Congress of Women and helped form the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and the American Civil Liberties Union. In 1931 she shared the Nobel Prize for Peace with Nicholas M. Butler.

Learn more about Addams, Jane with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

Learn more about Addams, Charles (Samuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 6, 1860, Cedarville, Ill., U.S.—died May 21, 1935, Chicago, Ill.) U.S. social reformer. Addams graduated from Rockford Female Seminary in Illinois in 1881 and was granted a degree the following year when the institution became Rockford College. During a trip to Europe in 1887–88 she visited the Toynbee Hall settlement house in London, which sparked her interest in social reform. Determined to create something like Toynbee Hall in the U.S., in 1889 she cofounded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first settlement houses in North America to provide practical services and educational opportunities for the poor. She subsequently championed social reforms such as juvenile-court law, justice for immigrants and African Americans, worker's rights and compensation, and women's suffrage. In 1910 she became the first female president of the National Conference of Social Work. An ardent pacifist, she served in 1915 as chair of the International Congress of Women and helped form the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and the American Civil Liberties Union. In 1931 she shared the Nobel Prize for Peace with Nicholas M. Butler.

Learn more about Addams, Jane with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

Learn more about Addams, Charles (Samuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Addams is a patronymic surname from the given name Adam. There are other spellings. Addams may refer to:

Persons

  • Aubrey Addams (born 1987), American porn actress
  • Calpernia Addams (born 1971), American transsexual author, actress, and activist
  • Charles Addams (1912–1988), American cartoonist, author of “The Addams Family”
  • Dawn Addams (1930–1985), English actress
  • Jane Addams (1860–1935), American founder of the Settlement House movement
  • William Addams (1777–1858), American politician, U.S. representative from Pennsylvania

Fictional characters

  • The Addams Family”, American print cartoon by Charles Addams; and television series, films, and video games based on the cartoon

Other uses

See also

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