adaptation

adaptation

[ad-uhp-tey-shuhn]
adaptation, in biology, has several meanings. It can mean the adjustment of living matter to environmental conditions and to other living things either in an organism's lifetime (physiological adaptation) or in a population over many many generations (evolutionary adaptation). The word can also refer to a trait that is considered an adaptation. The ability to adapt is a fundamental property of life and constitutes a basic difference between living and nonliving matter.

Most living things require free oxygen from the air or from water, but yeasts, many bacteria, and some other simple forms obtain the oxygen required for oxidation from molecules of substances that contain the element. Various animals and plants are adapted for securing their food and for surviving the extremes of temperature and of water supply in desert, tropical, and polar regions. For most organisms the optimum temperature is between about 20°C; (68°F;) and 40°C; (104°F;). Some algae and protozoans live in hot springs, and some bacteria can survive freezing or survive on chemicals, without light, in the ocean depths. Cacti can survive heat and drought. Certain fish and other aquatic animals live in deep water and are so specialized to withstand the great pressure that they burst if lifted to sea level.

Animals show anatomical adaptations—e.g., the body of the fish is suited to life in the water; the body of the bird is adapted for flight; and the land mammals show a wide variation in the structure of limbs and body that enables some to run swiftly, some to climb, some to swing from tree to tree, some to glide through the air, and others to jump. The whale, an aquatic mammal, can adjust to great pressure changes at different levels in the water. The beaks of birds vary in shape and size according to what they feed on—e.g., on seeds, on insects, on aquatic animals, or on small mammals. The feet and legs of birds also show modifications that fit them for perching, for wading, or for paddling through the water. Adaptive coloration is observed in many animals (see protective coloration). Among communal insects, such as ants and honeybees, the individuals are highly adapted to perform their functions in the community.

It is believed by many scientists that life originated in the sea and that through gradual evolutionary changes some forms became adapted to life on land. Variations may arise as a result of mutation, or of recombinations of the genes in the germ cells. Such variations are inherited (see genetics). Those that aid the organism to meet the conditions of a changing environment or help it in its competition with other living things enable it to survive and reproduce, the changes thus being passed on from one generation to another and in this way perhaps producing a new species.

See ecology; evolution; selection.

In physical anthropology, the genetic adaptation of human beings to different environmental conditions, such as extreme cold, humid heat, desert habitat, and high altitudes. Extreme cold favours short, round bodies with short arms and legs, flat faces with fat pads over the sinuses, narrow noses, and a heavy layer of body fat. These adaptations provide minimum surface area in relation to body mass for minimum heat loss and protect the lungs and base of the brain against cold air in the nasal passages. In conditions of humid heat, where body heat must be dissipated, selection favours tall and thin bodies with maximum surface area for heat radiation. A wide nose prevents warming of the air in the nasal passages, and dark skin protects against harmful solar radiation. The desert-adapted person must compensate for water loss through sweating. A thin but not tall body minimizes both water needs and water loss; skin pigmentation is moderate, since extreme pigmentation is good protection from the sun but allows absorption of heat from direct sunlight, which must be lost by sweating. Adaptation to night cold, often part of a desert environment, provides increased metabolic activity to warm the body during sleep. High altitudes demand, in addition to cold adaptation, adaptation for low air pressure and the consequent low oxygen, usually by an increase in lung tissue. Seealso acclimatization; race.

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In biology, the process by which an animal or plant becomes fitted to its environment. It is the result of natural selection acting on inherited variation. Even simple organisms must be adapted in many ways, including structure, physiology, and genetics; movement or dispersal; means of defense and attack; and reproduction and development. To be useful, adaptations must often occur simultaneously in different parts of the body.

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Adaptation. is a 2002 comedy-drama satire film directed by Spike Jonze and written by Charlie Kaufman. The film is based on Susan Orlean's book The Orchid Thief through self-referential events. Adaptation. stars Nicolas Cage (as both Charlie and Donald Kaufman), as well as Meryl Streep, Chris Cooper, Cara Seymour, Brian Cox, Tilda Swinton, Ron Livingston and Maggie Gyllenhaal. The film tells the story of Charlie Kaufman's difficult struggle to adapt The Orchid Thief into a film. In addition Orlean romances with John Laroche while Charlie enlists the help of his obnoxious twin brother Donald.

The film had been in development as far back as 1994. Jonathan Demme brought the project to Columbia Pictures with Kaufman writing the script. Kaufman went through writer's block and did not know what to think of The Orchid Thief. In turn Kaufman wrote a script about his experience adapting The Orchid Thief into a screenplay. Tom Hanks was at one point set for the role of Charlie Kaufman while John Turturro was approached to portray Laroche. Jonze signed to direct and filming finished in June 2001. Adaptation. received positive reviews and critical acclaim, as well as outstanding success at the 75th Academy Awards, 60th Golden Globe Awards and 56th British Academy Film Awards.

Plot

Note: The following is told in chronological order.
John Laroche and his wife run a successful Florida nursery, but tragedy strikes and Laroche's wife, mother and uncle are involved in a car accident. Laroche's mother and uncle die, but his wife goes into a coma, divorcing Laroche once she gains consciousness. Hurricane Andrew comes one month later, destroying Laroche's home and everything he owns. Meanwhile, local Seminoles hire Laroche due to his vast knowledge of flowers and orchid poaching. However, the Seminoles only use the extract of the Ghost Orchid for drug use, and not for tribal ceremonials as Laroche thought.

Laroche is caught at the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park, ensuing into a trial and catching the interest of New Yorker journalist Susan Orlean. Laroche and Susan become great friends, with Susan writing The Orchid Thief. Laroche and Susan then become romantically involved, while Susan is still married, albeit unhappily, in New York. The Orchid Thief is then optioned by Columbia Pictures.

During the filming of Being John Malkovich, Charlie Kaufman is hired to write the screenplay. At the same time Charlie is going through melancholic depression and his obnoxious twin brother Donald moves into his house. Donald decides to become a screenwriter like Charlie, and visits the seminars of Robert McKee. Charlie wants to adapt the script into a faithful adaptation of The Orchid Thief, hoping to impress Susan. However, he realizes that there is no narrative involved and finds it impossible to turn the book into a film, going through a serious case of writer's block.

Meanwhile, Donald's spec script for a cliché psychological thriller sells for over one million dollars, while Charlie accidentally starts writing his script with self-reference. Already well over his deadline with Columbia Pictures, Charlie (from Los Angeles, California) visits Susan in New York for advice on the screenplay. In New York Charlie finds that he is not courageous enough to meet Susan, leaving without consulting with her. Charlie visits a McKee seminar in New York, gaining advice from McKee, and bringing Donald to assist with the story structure. Donald suggests having sex, a car chase and drugs for the climax. Charlie and Donald follow Susan to Florida where she meets Laroche. The film indeed ends with Susan and Laroche taking the Ghost Orchid drug, having sex, a car chase involving Susan and Charlie and with Donald being shot and killed, and Laroche getting eaten alive by an alligator. His writer's block broken, Charlie finally summons up the courage to tell his former girlfriend, Amelia, that he is in love with her. He finishes his script, with Gérard Depardieu in mind to portray him in the film.

Cast

  • Nicolas Cage as
  • Meryl Streep as Susan Orlean: A journalist and author from The New Yorker. She is fascinated by Laroche's trial in Florida and intends to write a piece about it. She becomes romantically involved with Laroche.
  • Chris Cooper as John Laroche: An eccentric orchid poacher working for the local Seminole Indian tribe. Laroche considers himself "the smartest man I know" and has a unique knowledge of Charles Darwin, fossils and flowers. He lost his front teeth after a car accident wherein his mother and uncle were killed. His ex-wife divorced him after waking up from a coma. Laroche also ran a successful porn website before being killed by an alligator.
  • Cara Seymour as Amelia Kavan: A violinist and Charlie's girlfriend. She leaves him for a man named David after her unsuccessful relationship with Charlie. In the end, Charlie finally summons the courage to tell her that he loves her. She admits that she loves him, too.
  • Brian Cox as Robert McKee: A creative writing instructor who is widely known for his popular "Story Seminar". McKee is heavily against voice-overs and considers Casablanca (1942) to be the finest screenplay ever written.
  • Tilda Swinton as Valerie Thomas: A studio executive from Columbia Pictures whom Charlie is attracted to. Valerie is the one who hires Charlie to write the script.
  • Ron Livingston as Marty Bowen: Charlie's obnoxious agent who personally suggest Charlie to get help from Donald when writing The Orchid Thief.
  • Maggie Gyllenhaal as Caroline Cunningham: A make-up artist and Donald's girlfriend.
  • Judy Greer as Alice: A waitress at the local café where Charlie often dines. Charlie tries to ask her out on a date.

Tom Hanks was originally set for the double role of Charlie and Donald Kaufman, while Variety was convinced Donald was a real person. Cage took the role for a $5 million salary, and wore a fatsuit during filming. Streep previously expressed dire interest in the role before being cast, and took a salary cut in recognition of the film's budget. John Turturro was approached to portray John Laroche. Cooper heavily considered turning down Laroche, but accepted it after his wife's persistence. Albert Finney, Christopher Plummer, Terence Stamp and Michael Caine were considered for the role of Robert McKee, but McKee personally suggested Brian Cox towards the filmmakers.

Litefoot and Jay Tavare have small roles as Seminole Indians. Catherine Keener, John Malkovich, Lance Acord and Spike Jonze have uncredited cameos as themselves in scenes where Charlie Kaufman is on the set of Being John Malkovich. John Cusack filmed a cameo before it was deleted from the final cut of the film. More cameos include Doug Jones as Augustus Raymond Margary for a small scene when Susan fantasizes about the history of orchid poaching, Jim Beaver as Ranger Tony and David O. Russell as a New Yorker journalist.

Production

The idea to do a film adaptation of Susan Orlean's The Orchid Thief dates back to 1994. Fox 2000 purchased the film rights in 1997, eventually selling them to Jonathan Demme, who set the project at Columbia Pictures. Charlie Kaufman was hired to write the script, but went through writer's block and did not know what to think of The Orchid Thief. In turn, Kaufman wrote about his experience adapting the script through exaggerated events, and created a fictional "brother" named Donald Kaufman. Charlie even went as far as putting Donald's name on the script and dedicated the film to the fictional character. By September 1999, Kaufman had written two drafts of the script, and turned in another draft in November 2000.

Kaufman explained, "The idea of how to write the film didn't come to me until quite late. It was the only idea I had, I liked it, and I knew there was no way it would be approved if I pitched it. So I just wrote it and never told the people I was writing it for. I only told Spike Jonze, as we were making John Malkovich and he saw how frustrated I was. Had he said I was crazy, I don't know what I would have done. In addition Kaufman stated, "I really thought I was ending my career by turning that in! Adaptation. went on fast track in April 2000, with Kaufman mildly rewriting the script. Scott Brake of IGN leaked the script on the Internet in June 2000, as did Drew "Moriarty" McWeeny of Ain't It Cool News in October. Columbia Pictures committed to North America distribution only after Intermedia came aboard to finance the film in exchange for international distribution rights. Filming started in late March 2001 in Los Angeles, California, and finished by June.

Reception

Columbia Pictures had at one point announced a late 2001 theatrical release date. Adaptation. opened on December 6, 2002 in the United States for a limited release. The film then was released nationwide on February 14, 2003, earning $1,130,480 in its opening weekend in 672 theaters. Adaptation. went on to gross $22.5 million in North America and $10.3 million in foreign countries, coming at a total of $32.8 million. Based on 186 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, Adaptation. received an average 90% overall approval rating; the film was more balanced with the 31 critics in Rotten Tomatoes' "Top Critics", receiving a 84% approval rating. By comparison, Metacritic calculated an average score of 83 from 40 reviews.

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times believed the film was something "That leaves you breathless with curiosity, as it teases itself with the directions it might take. To watch the film is to be actively involved in the challenge of its creation. Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe thought "This is epic, funny, tragic, demanding, strange, original, boldly sincere filmmaking. And the climax, the portion that either sinks the entire movie or self-critically explains how so many others derail, is bananas. David Ansen of Newsweek felt Meryl Streep had not "been this much fun to watch in years", while Mike Clark of USA Today gave a largely negative review, mainly criticizing the ending: "Too smart to ignore but a little too smugly superior to like, this could be a movie that ends up slapping its target audience in the face by shooting itself in the foot.

Chris Cooper won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, while Nicolas Cage (Actor in a Leading Role) and Streep (Supporting Actress) were nominated. Charlie and Donald Kaufman were nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay. Donald became the first truly fictitious person nominated for an Oscar. Cooper and Streep won their respective categories at the 60th Golden Globe Awards. Spike Jonze, Cage and Kaufman were nominated for awards while Adaptation. was nominated for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy. Cage, Cooper and Streep received nominations at the 56th British Academy Film Awards, with Kaufman winning Best Adapted Screenplay.

References

External links

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