An acyl group
) is a functional group
derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl
group from an oxoacid
.. In organic chemistry
, the acyl group is usually derived from a carboxylic acid
of the form RC O OH
. It therefore has the formula RC
)-, with a double bond
between the carbon and oxygen atoms (i.e. a carbonyl group
), and a single bond between R and the carbon. Acyl groups can also be derived from other types of acids such as sulfonic acids
, phosphonic acids
, and some others.
Acyl halides can be used in Friedel-Crafts acylation to introduce the acyl moiety in an aromatic compound.
In biochemistry, acyl CoAs are derivates of fatty acid metabolism, with acetyl CoA as an example. They are actually thiol esters.
The names of acyl groups are typically derived from the corresponding acid by substituting the acid ending -ic
with the ending -yl
as shown in the table below. Note that methyl
etc. end in -yl are not acyl but alkyl
groups, derived from alkanes
groups the acyl group is bonded to oxygen: R-C=O-O-R' where R-C=O is the acyl group.
Acylium ions are cations of the type R-C+=O and play an important role as intermediates in organic reactions for example the Hayashi rearrangement.