Also Jansenism has been accused of crypto-Calvinism by Roman Catholics.
Martin Luther had had controversy with "Sacramentarians", and he published against them book Confession Concerning Christ's Supper. Philipp I of Hessen arranged Marburg Colloquy 1529, which caused no results. Later Wittenberg Concord 1536 made some Reformed to confess doctrine of Real Presence, but results did not last.
While Lutheranism had weakened after the Schmalkaldic War and Interim controversies, the Calvinist Reformation on the other hand was spreading over Europe. Calvinists wanted to help also Lutherans to give up "remnants of popery", as they saw it. Calvinism had expanded its influence now also to southern Germany (not least because of the work of Martin Bucer), but at this time Peace of Augsburg (1555) had given religious freedom in Germany only to Lutherans, and it was not officially extended to Calvinists until the Treaty of Westphalia 1648. While Zwinglians 1549 had accepted Calvin's much less radical view of the Christs presence in Lord's Supper (The Eucharist was to be more than a sign; Christ was truly present in it, and was received by Faith), Calvinist theologians thought, that Lutheran theology also had changed its view to Real Presence, because the issue had not been discussed anymore, and Philippist teaching gave some justification to this conclusion.
When Luther died in 1546, his closest friend and ally Philipp Melanchthon became the leading Lutheran theologian of Protestant Reformation. He was by training not a theologian but rather a classics scholar, and his theological approach became more or less irenic both toward Catholicism and toward Calvinism, which was followed by his disciples called Philippists. Towards Reformed doctrine of eucharist this had become evident already in 1540, when Melanchthon had published another version of the Augsburg Confession ("Variata"), in which the article on the Real Presence differed essentially from what had been expressed in 1530. The wording was as follows:
The altered edition was made the basis of negotiations with the Roman Catholics at the Colloquies of Worms and Ratisbon in 1541, and at the later Colloquies in 1546 and 1557. It was printed (with the title and preface of the Invariata) in Corpus Doctrinae Philippicum in 1559; it was expressly approved by the Lutheran princes at the Convention of Naumburg in 1561, after Melanchthon’s death, as an improved modification and authentic interpretation of the Confession, and was adhered to by the Melanchthonians and the Reformed even after the adoption of the Book of Concord (1580). Also John Calvin signed it. Still it had no legal status given by Peace of Augsburg, which belonged to original version.
The earliest of these incidents had happened with Simon Wolferinus, pastor of St. Andreas at Eisleben in 1543, while Martin Luther still lived. The controversy also was about eucharistic adoration, which was defended by "Gnesio-Lutherans" and also many other Lutherans outside of Flacian party, like Johann Hachenburg, Andreas Musculus, Jakob Rungius and Laurentius Petri. This belief was shared also by Nikolaus Selnecker, Martin Chemnitz and Timotheus Kirchner. Feast of the victory of genuine Lutheranism over Philippism was celebrated in one of the German principalities with prayers for the preservation of the doctrine of justification and the doctrine of the adoration of the Sacrament Paul Eber was one of the Philippistic main opponents of eucharistic adoration.
Crypto-Calvinists had gained the ecclesiastical power in Saxony during the rule of elector Augustus, but the unquestionably Calvinistic work of Joachim Cureus, Exegesis perspicua de sacra cœna (1574), and a confidential letter of Johann Stössel which fell into the elector's hands opened his eyes. The heads of the Philippist party were imprisoned and roughly handled, and the Torgau Confession of 1574 completed their downfall (Caspar Peucer, not incidentally Melanchthon's son-in-law, was captured and jailed in the Königstein Fortress for Crypto- Calvinism for 12 years). By the adoption of the Formula of Concord their cause was ruined in all the territories which accepted it, although in some others it survived under the aspect of a modified Lutheranism, as in Nuremberg, or, as in Nassau, Hesse, Anhalt, and Bremen, where it became more or less definitely identified with Calvinism.
Crypto-Calvinism raised its head once more in Electoral Saxony in 1586, on the accession of Christian I., but on his death five years later it came to a sudden and bloody end with the murder of Nikolaus Krell as a victim to this unpopular revival of Calvinism.
Following the Prussian Union and other Evangelical unions in Germany, the Evangelical Church in Germany consists of both Lutherans and Reformed. Leuenberg Concord (1962) has made similar irenic solution between Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines, while Confessional Lutheran church bodies still continue to see Calvinist teaching on Lord's Supper as a danger to Lutheran faith and identity. It can be noted, that never in the history of the Christian Church has there been any "crypto-Lutheranism", but the Lutheran Church has always confessed its doctrines without any hiding.
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