In 1845, a motion was carried at the Repeal Association's committee for all Irish MPs to withdraw from Westminster. It was proposed by Thomas Osborne Davis of the Young Ireland movement. However, the committee felt MPs already sitting could not withdraw without breaking the oath of office they had taken upon election. The Irish Confederation, which withrew from the Repeal Association in 1847, resolved in favour of immediate abstention. However, William Smith O'Brien, its founder, continued to speak at Westminster. In 1848 Charles Gavan Duffy proposed that Irish MPs expelled from Westminster should sit in a separate Irish parliament.
From the 1860s, Irish Republican Brotherhood leaders Charles Kickham and John O'Leary favoured abstentionism. In 1869, G.H. Moore suggested nominating imprisoned republicans for election, knowing they were precluded as convicted felons from taking seats. On this basis, Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa (in 1870) and John Mitchel (twice in 1875) were returned at by-elections in Tipperary; O'Donovan Rossa was in prison at his election, while Mitchel was in exile.
Kickham envisaged a "great national conference" calling on Irish MPs to withdraw from Westminster. A motion proposed by Charles Doran to that effect was passed at the convention of the Home Rule League (HRL). "Honest" John Martin, "independent nationalist" MP for Meath 1871-75, spoke in Westminster only to raise nationalist protests, and refused to vote. In the 1874 election, 59 HRL MPs were returned, including John O'Connor Power in Mayo, who was a member of the IRB Supreme Council. He was to fall out with the IRB over allegations of misappropriating election funds, and became progressively less radical. By 1876, it was clear that the HRL would never be able to organise a national convention, and MPs elected with its endorsement would remain at Westminster. An alternative to abstentionism was obstructionism by making filibusters. This was practised by the HRL and its successor, the Irish Parliamentary Party under Charles Stuart Parnell from the late 1870s.
In 1919, Sinn Féin Members of Parliament (MPs) elected in 1918 to the Parliament of the United Kingdom refused to sit in that body and instead constituted themselves as the first Dáil, which was claimed to be the legitimate parliament of the Irish Republic. One strand within Republicanism, in remaining loyal to this pre-Partition Irish Republic, denies the legitimacy of both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Other parties reached accommodation with the southern state but not Northern Ireland. Some groups have boycotted elections within either jurisdiction; others have been abstentionist; others abstained from some bodies but not others. Abstentionism has often been a divisive issue within Republicanism.
Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin abstained from the first (1923-27) Dáil of the Irish Free State. Fianna Fáil split from Sinn Féin in 1927 and abandoned abstentionism in the Free State, but for a time contested elections to the Parliament of Northern Ireland at Stormont and abstained.
In 1955, Sinn Féin contested local elections in the Republic of Ireland and took its seats.
In 1970, at its Ard Fheis (annual conference), Sinn Féin split again on the issue of whether or not to reverse its long-standing policy of refusing to taking seats in Dáil Éireann. The split created "Official Sinn Féin" (later Sinn Féin the Workers Party - SFWP) and the abstentionist "Provisional Sinn Féin" (PSF). Sinn Féin the Workers Party won a seat in the Dáil in 1981. It later dropped Sinn Féin from its name to become "The Workers Party", so that PSF became simply "Sinn Féin".
Sinn Féin adopted the "armalite and ballot box strategy" in 1981, and first contested modern elections in Northern Ireland with the 1982 Assembly elections which they abstained from. They also abstained from the Northern Ireland Forum. They adopted non-abstentionist policies for elections to local authorities (next held in 1985) and to the European Parliament.
Another split occurred in 1986, on the same issue, leading again to two parties - Sinn Féin, led by Gerry Adams, and Republican Sinn Féin (RSF), led by Ruairí Ó Brádaigh. Sinn Féin's first sitting Teachta Dála was Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin in Cavan-Monaghan in 1997.
RSF has retained the policy of abstentionism from both Dáil Éireann and the Northern Ireland Assembly. RSF has not in fact contested elections for Dáil Éireann or Westminster. It is not a registered party in Northern Ireland, but members have contested the Assembly elections as independents.
The Nationalist Party did not take their seats during the first Stormont parliament (1921-25). Despite forming the second-largest parliamentary party, they did not accept the role of Opposition for a further forty years. They did so on 2 February 1965 but withdrew from opposition again in October 1968, two weeks after police batonned demonstrators at a civil rights march in Derry on 5 October 1968.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) became the Opposition on its formation on 21 August 1970 but that party withdrew from Stormont in July 1971. The SDLP participated in the assembly set up for the Sunningdale Agreement, and in the Constitutional Convention. However, they abstained from the 1982 Assembly, and their participation in the Northern Ireland Forum was intermittent.
Since the establishment of the Northern Ireland Assembly under the Good Friday Agreement, both the SDLP and Sinn Féin have taken their seats in that body. SDLP MPs have consistently taken their seats in the Westminster parliament, in contrast to Sinn Féin MPs who refuse to take their seats there, as they refuse to recognise that body's right to legislate for any part of Ireland.
Fianna Fáil registered as a political party within Northern Ireland in 2007. It hss not made clear whether it will contest elections to Westminster.