is a region in the west of the Australian
state of Victoria
It covers the dryland farming area south of the range of Mallee scrub, east of the South Australia border and north of the Great Dividing Range. It can also be defined as the land within the social catchment of Horsham, its main settlement.
Most of the Wimmera is very flat, with only the Grampians and Mount Arapiles rising above vast plains and the low plateaux that form the Great Divide in this part of Victoria. The Grampians are very rugged and tilted, with many sheer sandstone cliffs on their eastern sides, but gentle slopes on the west.
At the 2006 census, the Wimmera statistical division had a population of 48,443.
The area contains a number of important towns, such as Horsham
. Almost all of these are largely dependent on the grain
industries, and are usually dominated by flour mills
and grain storage silos
. The smaller towns in the area are dying due to over-exploitation of the fragile soils and the constantly declining value of the primary products that dominate the region's economy
The climate is semi-arid to sub-humid, with annual rainfall ranging generally from 380 millimetres (15 inches) in the north to 580 millimetres (23 inches) in the south. In the Grampians, annual precipitation can be as high as 1150 millimetres (46 inches) and snowfalls are not uncommon. Most rain falls in winter, though heavy summer falls can occur, the most famous of which was the thunderstorm
that dumped 133.2 millimetres on Nhill in mid-January 1974.
Temperatures are hot in summer, ranging typically from a maximum of 30°C (86°F) to a minimum of 14°C (57°F), whilst extremes can be as high as 44°C (111°F). In the winter, maximums are 15°C (59°F), but mornings can be cold, averaging at Horsham only 4°C (40°F).
Most of the soils are very infertile and many are sandy; however in a narrow belt between Nhill
there are heavy grey Vertisols
, that, although still deficient in phosphorus
, are otherwise free of major nutrient deficiencies and are able to hold water very well. These grey soils are the principle wheat
soils of Victoria. Red-brown earths are also used for wheat but do not give as high yields and require more fertilisation.
The Wimmera River
flows from the Grampians towards Lake Hindmarsh
. Many streams in the region flow only after sustained heavy rainfall and are often dry for long spells. In fact, in recent years Rocklands Reservoir
, the main water storage of the district, has become almost unviable due to a succession of dry years.
The Wimmera is renowned for its natural heritage.
One of the key preservation areas is contained within the Grampians National Park
, which possesses many unusual wildflowers and the greatest diversity of flora and fauna in Victoria west of the Snowy River
. The Grampians also possess many important Aboriginal
artifacts. A local aboriginal name Gariwerd
was adopted by the National Park in 1991 in recognition of this fact, however this change was soon reversed after a change of state government in 1992.
The (misnamed) Little Desert National Park
, south of Nhill and west of Dimboola, is a large wilderness area of sand dunes that were too infertile for productive farming even with superphosphate
and trace elements.