Definitions

Abbe

Abbe

[a-bey, ab-ey; Fr. a-bey]
Abbe, Cleveland, 1838-1916, American meteorologist, b. New York City; brother of Robert Abbe. He was the first official daily weather forecaster in the United States. Abbe studied astronomy at the Univ. of Michigan, under B. A. Gould at Cambridge, Mass., and in Pulkovo, Russia. As director of the Cincinnati Observatory, he inaugurated daily weather predictions based on telegraphic reports. This work prompted the establishment of the national weather service, under the Signal Corps (1870), which Abbe joined in 1871; from 1891 to 1916 he served in the U.S. Weather Bureau.
Abbe, Ernst, 1840-1905, German physicist. He was appointed professor at the Univ. of Jena in 1870 and director of its astronomical and meteorological observatories in 1878. From 1866 he was associated with the Carl-Zeiss optical works at Jena, of which he became sole owner in 1888. He subsequently reorganized the firm on a cooperative basis. He made his plant a laboratory for the development of model working conditions, created a noncontributory pension fund and a discharge compensation fund, and introduced other advanced ideas that have been influential in shaping thought on the conditions of labor. He invented the Abbe refractometer for determining the refractive index of substances and improved photographic and microscopic lenses.
Abbe, Robert, 1851-1928, American surgeon, b. New York City, M.D. Columbia, 1874; brother of Cleveland Abbe. He was especially noted as a plastic surgeon and was a pioneer in the use of catgut sutures. A friend of the Curies, Abbe was also one of the first in the United States to use radium in treating cancer.

(born Dec. 3, 1838, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 28, 1916, Chevy Chase, Md.) U.S. meteorologist. He was trained as an astronomer and appointed director of the Cincinnati Observatory in 1868. His interest turned to meteorology, and he inaugurated a public weather service that served as a model for the national weather service, which was organized shortly thereafter as a branch of the (U.S. Army) Signal Service. In 1871 he was appointed chief meteorologist of the branch, which in 1891 was reorganized under civilian control as the U.S. Weather Bureau (later the National Weather Service), and he served in that capacity more than 45 years.

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(born Dec. 3, 1838, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 28, 1916, Chevy Chase, Md.) U.S. meteorologist. He was trained as an astronomer and appointed director of the Cincinnati Observatory in 1868. His interest turned to meteorology, and he inaugurated a public weather service that served as a model for the national weather service, which was organized shortly thereafter as a branch of the (U.S. Army) Signal Service. In 1871 he was appointed chief meteorologist of the branch, which in 1891 was reorganized under civilian control as the U.S. Weather Bureau (later the National Weather Service), and he served in that capacity more than 45 years.

Learn more about Abbe, Cleveland with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Abbe may refer to:

People

Places

  • Abbe (crater), a lunar impact crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon
  • Lake Abbe, African lake

Other

  • Abbé, the French word for abbot
  • Abbe condenser, a component of a microscope
  • Abbe number, a measure of the material's optical dispersion
  • Abbe prism, a type of constant deviation dispersive prism similar to a Pellin-Broca prism
  • Abbe refractometer, a bench-top refractometer that offer the highest precision of the different types of refractometers
  • Abbe sine condition, a condition that must be fulfilled by a lens or other optical system in order for it to produce sharp images of off-axis as well as on-axis objects

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