|Xiping Jingdaogong (西平敬悼公) or|
Xiping Chonggong (西平沖公)
|Family name:||Zhang (張; zhāng)|
|Given name:||Xuanjing (玄靚, xuán jìng)|
|Posthumous name:||Jingdao (敬悼, jìng daò)|
"respectful and fearful"
|Posthumous name:||Chong (沖, chōng)|
Zhang Xuanjing (張玄靚) (350-363), courtesy name Yuan'an (元安), formally Duke Jingdao of Xiping (西平敬悼公, posthumous name given by Jin Dynasty (265-420)) or Duke Chong of Xiping (西平沖公, posthumous name used internally in Former Liang) was a ruler of the Chinese state Former Liang. He became the titular ruler at the young age of five after his violent uncle Zhang Zuo, who had seized the title from his older brother Zhang Yaoling and subsequently killed him, was himself killed in a coup. The years of his rule were characterized by political instability, as he went through a progression of regents who overthrew each other -- Zhang Guan (張瓘), Song Hun (宋混), Song Cheng (宋澄), Zhang Yong (張邕), and finally his uncle Zhang Tianxi, who eventually had him killed and took over the title in 363. During Zhang Guan's regency, he temporarily used the title Prince of Liang, but after Song Hun overthrew Zhang Guan, he again used the Jin-created title of Duke of Xiping.
In 353, Zhang Chonghua died, and Zhang Yaoling became the ruler (as Duke Ai), but actual power was in the hands of Zhang Chonghua's older brother Zhang Zuo, who was having an affair with Zhang Chonghua's mother Princess Dowager Ma and received her support in early 354 to depose Zhang Yaoling and claim the throne himself. Later that year, when he declared independence from Jin Dynasty (265-420), which Former Liang had been a titular vassal of, he created Zhang Xuanjing the Marquess of Liangwu.
In 356, the violent and capricious Zhang Zuo was overthrown and killed by the generals Zhang Guan and Song Hun. Initially, Song had Zhang Xuanjing claim the Jin-created title of Duke of Xiping, a title that his ancestors had carried for generations, but Zhang Guan overruled Song and had the young ruler claim the title Prince of Liang, a title that Jin had declined to grant previously. Zhang Guan served as regent.
Zhang Guan governed with a heavy hand, based on his own whim. In 359, he became suspicious of Song Hun and wanted to kill him and his brother Song Cheng (宋澄), and then depose Zhang Xuanjing and take the throne himself. Song Hun received news of this, however, and started an uprising within the capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu). Song's and Zhang Guan's forces battled within the city, but eventually Song prevailed, and Zhang Guan and his brother Zhang Ju (張琚) committed suicide. Their clan was slaughtered. Song Hun became regent.
In 363, Princess Dowager Ma died, and Zhang Xuanjing honored Lady Guo as princess dowager. She became concerned that Zhang Tianxi was acting dictatorally, and she conspired with the high level official Zhang Qin (張欽) to kill Zhang Tianxi, but the news leaked, and Zhang Qin and other conspirators were put to death. Zhang Xuanjing became fearful and offered to yield the throne to Zhang Tianxi, but Zhang Tianxi refused. A month later, however, he had Liu Su lead soldiers into the palace to assassinate the 13-year-old Zhang Xuanjing, but claimed that Zhang Xuanjing died of an illness. Zhang Tianxi took the throne himself.
After 356, the era name of Emperor Min of Jin, Jianxing, was used until 361, when Former Liang switched to using the current era names used by Jin -- therefore, Emperor Mu's Shengping in 361 and Emperor Ai's Longhe in 362-363.