Definitions

Zamak

Zamak

Zamak (formerly trademarked as ZAMAK and also known as Zamac) is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium and copper. Zamak alloys are part of the zinc aluminium alloy family; they are distinguished from the other ZA alloys because of their constant 4% aluminium composition. The name zamak is an acronym of the German names for the metals of which the alloys are composed: zink (zinc), aluminium, magnesium and kupfer (copper). The New Jersey Zinc Company developed zamak alloys in 1929. It may be referred to as pot metal or white metal.

The most common zamak alloy is zamak 3, but zamak 2, zamak 5 and zamak 7 are still commercially used. These alloys are most commonly die cast. Zamak alloys (particularly #3 and #5) are frequently used in the spin casting industry.

A large problem with early zinc die casting materials was zinc pest, owing to impurities in the alloys. Zamak avoided this by the use of 99.99% pure zinc metal, produced by New Jersey's use of a refluxer as part of the smelting process.

Zamak can be electroplated, wet painted, and chromate conversion coated well.

Mazak

In the early 1930s Morris Ashby in Britain had licensed the New Jersey zamak alloy. The high-purity refluxer zinc was not available in Britain and so they acquired the right to manufacture the alloy using a locally available electrolytically refined zinc of 99.95% purity. This was given the name Mazak, partly to distinguish it from zamak and partly from the initials of Morris Ashby. In 1933, National Smelting licensed the refluxer patent with the intent of using it to produce 99.99% zinc in their plant at Avonmouth.

Standards

Zinc alloy chemical composition standards are defined per country by the standard listed below:

Zinc alloy standards per country
Country Zinc ingot Zinc casting
Europe EN1774 EN12844
USA ASTM B240 ASTM B86
Japan JIS H2201 JIS H5301
Australia AS 1881 - SAA H63 AS 1881 - SAA H64
China GB 8738-88 -
Canada CSA HZ3 CSA HZ11
International ISO 301 -

Zamak goes by many different names based on standard and/or country:

Various names for zamak alloys
Traditional name Short composition name Form Common ASTM Short European designation JIS China UK BS 1004 France NFA 55-010 Germany DIN 1743-2 UNS Other
Zamak 2
or
Kirksite
ZnAl4Cu3 Ingot Alloy 2 AG 43A ZL0430 - ZX04 - Z-A4U3 Z430 Z35540 ZL2, ZA-2, ZN-002
Cast ZP0430 - Z35541 ZP2, ZA-2, ZN-002
Zamak 3 ZnAl4 Ingot Alloy 3 AG 40A ZL0400 Ingot type 2 ZX01 Alloy A Z-A4 Z400 Z35521 ZL3, ZA-3, ZN-003
Cast ZP0400 ZDC2 - Z33520 ZP3, ZA-3, ZN-003
Zamak 4 Ingot Used in Asia only ZA-4, ZN-004
Zamak 5 ZnAl4Cu1 Ingot Alloy 5 AG 41A ZL0410 Ingot type 1 ZX03 Alloy B Z-A4UI Z410 Z35530 ZL5, ZA-5, ZN-005
Cast ZP0410 ZDC1 - Z35531 ZP5, ZA-5, ZN-005
Zamak 7 ZnAl4Ni Ingot Alloy 7 AG 40B - - ZX02 - - - Z33522 ZA-7, ZN-007
Cast - Z33523
color of the cell is the color of the material designated by ASTM B908.

The Short European Designation code breaks down as follows (using ZL0430 as the example):

  • Z is the material (Z=Zinc)
  • P is the use (P=Pressure die casting (casting), L=Ingot)
  • 04 is the percent aluminium (04= 4% aluminium)
  • 3 is the percent copper (3= 3% copper)

Zamak 2 or Kirksite

Zamak 2 has the same composition as zamak 3 with the addition of 3% copper in order to increased strength by 20%, but increases the price. Zamak 2 has the greatest strength out of all the zamak alloys. Over time it retains its strength and hardness better than the other alloys; however, it becomes more brittle, shrinks, and less elastic.

Zamak 2 is also known as Kirksite when gravity cast as for use a die. It was originally designed for low volume sheet metal dies. It later gained popularity for making short run injection molding dies. It is also less commonly used for non-sparking tools and mandrels for metal spinning.

Zamak 2 composition per standard
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
ASTM B240 (Ingot) min 3.9 2.6 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 2.9 0.05 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.075 - - - -
ASTM B86 (Cast) min 3.5 2.6 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 2.9 0.05 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.1 - - - -
EN1774 (Ingot) min 3.8 2.7 0.035 - - - - - - - -
max 4.2 3.3 0.06 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.02 - -
EN12844 (Cast) min 3.7 2.7 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 3.3 0.06 0.005 0.005 0.002 0.05 0.02 0.03 - -
GB8738-88 min 3.9 2.6 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 3.1 0.06 0.004 0.003 0.0015 0.035 - - - -

Zamak 2 properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength 397 MPa (331 MPa aged) 58,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 361 MPa 52,000 psi
Impact strength 38 J (7 J aged) 28 ft-lbf (5 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax 3% (2% aged)
Elongation at fracture 6%
Shear strength 317 MPa 46,000 psi
Compressive yield strength 641 MPa 93,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles) 59 MPa 8,600 psi
Hardness 130 Brinell (98 Brinell aged)
Modulus of elasticity 96 GPa 14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 379—390 °C 714—734 °F
Density 6.8 kg/dm3 0.25 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion 27.8 μm/m-°C 15.4 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 105 W/m-K 729 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity 6.85 μΩ-cm at 20 °C 2.70 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fusion) 110 J/g 4.7x10-5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity 419 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction 0.08

KS

The KS alloy was developed for spin casting decorative parts. It has the same composition as zamak 2, except with more magnesium in order to produce finer grains and reduce the orange peel effect.

KS composition
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
Nyrstar min 3.8 2.5 0.4 - - - - - - - -
max 4.2 3.5 0.6 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.020 - - - -

KS properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength < 200 MPa < 29,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset) < 200 MPa < 29,000 psi
Elongation < 2%
Hardness 150 Brinell max
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 380—390 °C 716—734 °F
Density 6.6 g/cm3 0.25 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion 28.0 μm/m-°C 15.4 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 105 W/m-K 729 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical conductivity 25% IACS
Specific heat capacity 419 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction 0.08

Zamak 3

Zamak 3 is the de facto standard for the zamak series of zinc alloys; all other zinc alloys are compared to this. Zamak 3 has the base composition for the zamak alloys (96% zinc, 4% aluminium). It has excellent castablity and long term dimensional stability. More than 70% of all North American zinc die castings are made from zamak 3.

Zamak 3 composition per standard
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
ASTM B240 (Ingot) min 3.9 - 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.1 0.05 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.075 - - - -
ASTM B86 (Cast) min 3.5 - 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.25 0.05 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.1 - - - -
EN1774 (Ingot) min 3.8 - 0.035 - - - - - - - -
max 4.2 0.03 0.06 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.02 - -
EN12844 (Cast) min 3.7 - 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.1 0.06 0.005 0.005 0.002 0.05 0.02 0.03 - -
JIS H2201 (Ingot) min 3.9 - 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.03 0.06 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.075 - - - -
JIS H5301 (Cast) min 3.5 - 0.02 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.25 0.06 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.01 - - - -
AS1881 min 3.9 - 0.04 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.03 0.06 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.05 - 0.001 0.0005 0.001
GB8738-88 min 3.9 - 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.1 0.06 0.004 0.003 0.0015 0.035 - - - -
Impurity

Zamak 3 properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength 208 MPa 30,200 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 268 MPa 38,900 psi
Impact strength 46 J (56 J aged) 34 ft-lbf (41 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax 3%
Elongation at fracture 6.3% (16% aged)
Shear strength 214 MPa 31,000 psi
Compressive yield strength 414 MPa 60,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles) 48 MPa 7,000 psi
Hardness 97 Brinell
Modulus of elasticity 96 GPa 14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 381—387 °C 718—729 °F
Density 6.7 g/cm3 0.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion 27.4 μm/m-°C 15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 113 W/mK 784 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity 6.37 μΩ-cm at 20 °C 2.51 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fussion) 110 J/g 4.7x10-5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity 419 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction 0.07

Zamak 4

Zamak 4 was developed for the Asian markets to reduce the effects of die soldering while maintaining the ductility of zamak 3. This was achieved by using half the amount of copper from the zamak 5 composition.

Zamak 4 composition per standard
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
Ningbo Jinyi Alloy Material Co. min 3.9 0.3 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.5 0.06 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.075 - - - -
Genesis Alloys Ltd. min 3.9 0.3 0.04 - - - - - - - -
max 4.2 0.4 0.05 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.02 0.0005 0.001

Zamak 4 properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength 317 MPa 46,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 221—269 MPa 32,000—39,000 psi
Impact strength 61 J (7 J aged) 45 ft-lbf (5 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation 7%
Shear strength 214—262 MPa 31,000—38,000 psi
Compressive yield strength 414—600 MPa 60,000—87,000 psi
Fatigue strength (rotary bending 5x108 cycles) 48—57 MPa 7,000—8,300 psi
Hardness 91 Brinell
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 380—386 °C 716—727 °F
Density 6.6 g/cm3 0.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion 27.4 μm/m-°C 15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 108.9—113.0 W/m-K @ 100 °C 755.6—784.0 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F @ 212 °F
Electrical conductivity 26-27% IACS
Specific heat capacity 418.7 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F

Zamak 5

Zamak 5 has the same composition as zamak 3 with the addition of 1% copper in order to increase strength (by approximately 10%), hardness and corrosive resistance, but reduces ductility. It also has less dimensional accuracy. Zamak 5 is more commonly used in Europe.

Zamak 5 composition per standard
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
ASTM B240 (Ingot) min 3.9 0.75 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.25 0.06 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.075 - - - -
ASTM B86 (Cast) min 3.5 0.75 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.25 0.06 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.1 - - - -
EN1774 (Ingot) min 3.8 0.7 0.035 - - - - - - - -
max 4.2 1.1 0.06 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.02 0.001 0.02 - -
EN12844 (Cast) min 3.7 0.7 0.025 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.2 0.06 0.005 0.005 0.002 0.05 0.02 0.03 - -
JIS H2201 (Ingot) min 3.9 0.75 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.25 0.06 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.075 - - - -
JIS H5301 (Cast) min 3.5 0.75 0.02 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.25 0.06 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.01 - - - -
AS1881 min 3.9 0.75 0.04 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.25 0.06 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.05 - 0.001 0.0005 0.001
GB8738-88 min 3.9 0.7 0.03 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 1.1 0.06 0.004 0.003 0.0015 0.035 - - - -

Zamak 5 properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength 331 MPa (270 MPa aged) 48,000 psi (39,000 psi aged)
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 295 MPa 43,000 psi
Impact strength 52 J (56 J aged) 38 ft-lbf (41 ft-lbf aged)
Elongation at Fmax 2%
Elongation at fracture 3.6% (13% aged)
Shear strength 262 MPa 38,000 psi
Compressive yield strength 600 MPa 87,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles) 57 MPa 8,300 psi
Hardness 114 Brinell
Modulus of elasticity 96 GPa 14,000,000 psi
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 380—386 °C 716—727 °F
Density 6.7 kg/dm3 0.24 lb/in3
Coefficient of thermal expansion 27.4 μm/m-°C 15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 109 W/mK 756 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity 6.54 μΩ-cm at 20 °C 2.57 μΩ-in at 68 °F
Latent heat (heat of fusion) 110 J/g 4.7x10-5 BTU/lb
Specific heat capacity 419 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Coefficient of friction 0.08

Zamak 7

Zamak 7 has less magnesium than zamak 3 to increase fluidity and ductility, which is especially useful when casting thin wall components. In order to reduce inter-granular corrosion a small amount of nickel is added and impurities are more strictly controlled.

Zamak 7 composition per standard
Alloying elements Impurities
Standard Limit Al Cu Mg Pb Cd Sn Fe Ni Si In Tl
ASTM B240 (Ingot) min 3.9 - 0.01 - - - - - - - -
max 4.3 0.1 0.02 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.075 - - - -
ASTM B86 (Cast) min 3.5 - 0.005 - - - - 0.005 - - -
max 4.3 0.25 0.02 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.075 0.02 - - -
GB8738-88 min 3.9 - 0.01 - - - - 0.005 - - -
max 4.3 0.1 0.02 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.075 0.02 - - -
Impurity Alloying element

Zamak 7 properties
Property Metric value English value
Mechanical properties
Ultimate tensile strength 285 MPa 41,300 psi
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 285 MPa 41,300 psi
Impact strength 58.0 J 42.8 ft-lbf
Elongation at fracture 14%
Shear strength 214 MPa 31,000 psi
Compressive yield strength 414 MPa 60,000 psi
Fatigue strength (reverse bending 5x108 cycles) 47.0 MPa 6,820 psi
Hardness 80 Brinell
Physical properties
Solidification range (melting range) 381—387 °C 718—729 °F
Coefficient of thermal expansion 27.4 μm/m-°C 15.2 μin/in-°F
Thermal conductivity 113 W/m-K 784 BTU-in/hr-ft2-°F
Electrical resistivity 6.4 μΩ-cm 2.5 μΩ-in
Specific heat capacity 419 J/kg-°C 0.100 BTU/lb-°F
Casting temperature 395—425 °C 743—797 °F

Uses

Common uses for zamak alloys include:

See also

References

External links

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