The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. A landmark in the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the Revolution arose from an unlikely union of reform-minded pluralists, Turkish nationalists, Western-oriented secularists, and indeed anyone who accorded the Sultan political blame for the harried state of the Empire.
The Revolution restored the parliament, which had been suspended by the Sultan in 1878. However, the process of supplanting the monarchic institutions with constitutional institutions and electoral policies was neither as simple nor as bloodless as the regime change itself, and the periphery of the Empire continued to splinter under the pressures of local revolutions.
The goal was to unite all parties, including Young Turks, to advance the Revolution. Some differences, however, such as those in regard to nationalism, proved irreconcilable, and no lasting alliance was formed.
Two of the most important revolutionary groups trying to overthrow Sultan Abdul Hamid II had been the ARF and the Committee of Union and Progress. In a general assembly meeting in 1907, the ARF realized that both the Armenian and Turkish revolutionaries shared the same goals. The ARF decided to cooperate with the Committee of Union and Progress. The "Second congress of the Ottoman opposition" took place in Paris, France in 1907. Opposition leaders including Ahmed Riza (liberal), Prince Sabaheddin, and Khachatur Maloumian of the ARF were in attendance. During the meeting, an alliance between the two parties was officially declared. The ARF decided to cooperate with the Committee of Union and Progress, hoping that if the Young Turks came to power, autonomy would be granted to the Armenians.
Discontent within the 3rd Army Corps in Macedonia was the main reason for the revolt. Major Ahmed Niyazi, fearing discovery of his political moves by an investigatory committee sent from the capital, decamped from Resen on July 3, 1908 with 200 followers demanding restoration of the constitution. The sultan's attempt to suppress this uprising failed due to the popularity of the movement among the troops themselves. Rebellion spread rapidly. On July 24, Abdül Hamid announced restoration of the constitution.
The Committee of Union and Progress's adoption of an aggressive form of Ottomanism failed, its opponents regarding it as tantamount to Turkification, further straining relations among ethnic minorities and their fledgling government.