While its name is derived from its proclaimed revolt against bureaucratic, corrupt and alienated governing structures, it is widely recognized as part of Milošević's strengthening of power through populism, and expansion of centralized Serbian influence to its autonomous provinces Vojvodina and Kosovo (which were practically independent from Serbia's central government) and neighboring Montenegro. While the "revolution" was supposedly a grassroots movement, it was backed up by propaganda and astroturfing in Serbian media.
According to the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia, the autonomous provinces of Serbia (Vojvodina and Kosovo) had very little dependence from the central Serbian government, and both of them had a seat in the federal Presidency, along with 6 constituent republics. In effect, their status was almost equivalent with the one of republics, and provincial leaderships have lead practically independent policies.
In late 1987 and 1988, a populist campaign started in Serbia pointing out to untenability of such situation. The leaderships of the provinces were being accused of bureaucracy and alienation from people. Popular slogans like "oh Serbia from three parts, you will be whole again" (Ој Србијо из три дела поново ћеш бити цела, oj Srbijo iz tri dela ponovo ćeš biti cela) caught up. The atmosphere was further stirred up by numerous articles and readers' letters in Serbian press, the most notorious being Politika's rubric "Odjeci i reagovanja" (Echoes and reactions), letters to the editor type of astroturfing.
The main points of the campaign were the theses that:
However, the real outburst of protests began in second half of 1988. In June, the protest of workers of Zmaj factory gathered 5,000 protestors; in July, meetings were held in 7 towns with tens of thousands, and in August in 10 towns with 80,000 people, and in September they affected 39 towns with over 400,000 attendants.
The provincial leadership, led by the provincial party president Milovan Šogorov, Boško Krunić and Živan Berisavljević, were caught by surprise. Before the event, they tried to find a middle ground and negotiate with Milošević, expressing cautious support for the constitutional changes while trying to keep their and Vojvodina's position intact. However, the avalanche of media campaign orchestrated from Belgrade was about to overwhelm them; they were labeled as power-hungry "armchairers" (foteljaši) and "autonomists" (autonomaši).
In vain, someone from the government tried to cut off the power and water supply to the protesters, a move which enraged the mass further still, and caused even more people from Novi Sad and vicinity to join. When the electricity supply were returned back, they tried a different tactic: in order to cheer the demonstrators up, they gave them bread and yogurt: thousands of yogurt packages were soon thrown at the Parliament building by the angry people. The term "Yogurt revolution" for the protest was named after that episode.
We will win the battle for Kosovo regardless of the obstacles placed in front of us in the country and abroad. So, we will win regardless of the uniting of our enemies from abroad and those in the country. And that this nation will win the battle for freedom, is a fact well-known even to the Turkish and German conquerors.
The second act started with joint rallies consisting of workers from Radoje Dakić state-owned factory and Veljko Vlahović University students. On January 10, 1989, over 100,000 protesters gathered in Titograd and the old leadership, confused and disorganised, soon gave in; none of them later played a significant political role. The new "young lions" of the Montenegro, Momir Bulatović, Milo Đukanović and Svetozar Marović, became the new leadership, strongly allied with Milošević in the years to come. The Alliance of Montenegrin Communists was subsequently transformed by the "triumvirate" who had full control over the (Socialist) Republic of Montenegro into the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, which vigorously maintained its grip over Montenegro and does so to this day almost 20 years later.
Personalization beyond Imagination: The Yogurt Culture Company Introduces the Fresh Yogurt Revolution to New York City
Jul 26, 2012; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Food Weekly News -- The Yogurt Culture Company, an innovative and inspiring new fresh...
The Yogurt Revolution: How Can NY Support and Expand This Economic Boom? Cornell to Host State, Industry and Research Outreach Leaders Forum on Nov. 8
Nov 06, 2012; Ithaca, NY -- The following information was released by Cornell University: WHAT: State, industry and academic leaders gather for...