Yellow hat

Yellow badge

The yellow badge (or yellow patch), also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments in order to mark them as Jews in public. It is intended to be a badge of shame associated with antisemitism. In both Christian and Islamic countries, persons not of the ruling religion were intermittently compelled by sumptuary laws to wear badges, hats or other items of clothing that distinguished them from members of the ruling religious group.

The yellow badge that was compulsory in the Middle Ages was revived by the German Nazis.

Usage

Muslim countries

While antisemitism was less pronounced in Muslim countries, Jews were treated with contempt. This was expressed through sumptuary laws that established what colors, clothing or hats they were permitted or not permitted to wear. The use of distinctive clothing or marks for Jewish and other religious communities has been traced by historians to ancient times. In the early Islamic period, non-Muslims were required to wear distinctive marks in public, such as metal seals fixed around their necks. Tattooing and branding of slaves and captives were widespread in the ancient world. However, Islam, like Judaism, forbids permanent skin markings. In consequence, lead or copper seals were used to mark non-Muslims and slaves in the Islamic world. Likewise, they were not allowed to wear colors associated with Islam, particularly green. The practice of physically branding Jews and Christians appears to have been begun in early medieval Baghdad and was considered highly degrading. According to Bernard Lewis, Christians and Jews were forced to wear special emblems on their clothes. The yellow badge was first introduced by a caliph in Baghdad in the ninth century, and spread to the West in medieval times. Even in public baths, non-Muslims wore medallions suspended from cords around their necks so no one would mistake them for Muslims. Belts, headgear, shoes, armbands and/or cloth patches were also used. Under Shi'a rules, they were not even allowed to use the same baths In 1005 the Jews of Egypt were ordered to wear bells on their garments.

Christian countries

In Christian countries, dress codes were also imposed on Jewish and other non-Christian residents. In Europe, the Fourth Council of the Lateran of 1215 ruled that Jews and Muslims must be distinguishable by their dress (Latin "habitus")", and the yellow badge in Europe dates from this, unlike the Jewish hat (or "Judenhut"), a cone-shaped hat, which is seen in many illustrations from before this date, and remained the key distinguishing mark of Jewish dress in the Middle Ages. From the sixteenth century, the use of the Judenhut declined, but the badge tended to outlast it, surviving into the eighteenth century in places.

The identifying mark varied from one country to another, and from period to period. Apart from the hat, there were also attempts to enforce the wearing of full-length robes, which in late 14th century Rome were supposed to be red. The most common form of badge was the "rota" or "wheel", which looked like a ring, of white or yellow. The shape and color of the patch also varied, although the color was usually white or yellow. Married women were often required to wear two bands of blue on their veil or head-scarf. Edward I of England's Statute of Jewry prescribed "the form of two Tables joined, of yellow felt of the length of six inches and of the breadth of three inches". This shape - two separate strips or two joined round-topped rectangles - was particular to England. In Portugal a red star of David was used. Louis IX of France ordered French Jews to wear oval rouelle, a version of the "rota". As with all sumptuary laws, enforcement of the rules was very variable; in Marseilles the magistrates ignored accusations of breaches, and in some places individuals or communities could buy exemption.

Nazi period

After the German invasion of Poland in 1939 there were initially different local decrees forcing Jews to wear a distinct sign – in the General Government. The sign was a white armband with a blue Star of David on it, in the Warthegau a yellow badge in the form of a Star of David on the left side of the breast and on the back. The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word Jude (German for Jew) inscribed was then extended to all Jews over the age of six in the Reich and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (by a decree issued on September 1, 1941 signed by Reinhard Heydrich) and was gradually introduced in other German-occupied areas, where local words were used (e.g. Juif in French, Jood in Dutch).

Timeline

717: Possible date of the Pact of Umar which stipulates that Christians (and by implication also Jews) living in Muslim lands are required to wear distinctive clothing. Although there are questions about the status of this document as a historic source, the use of distinguishing marks is consistent with documentary and archaeological evidence from seventh century and eighth century Iraq and Syria. 850: A decree of the Abbassid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil, reported by the tenth century historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, requires Christian and Jewish subjects to wear honey-coloured hoods and belts of a particular type. Distinguishing marks are also prescribed for their slaves. 1005: Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim, orders Jewish and Christian residents to wear bells on their garments and a "golden calf" (made of wood) around the neck when bathing with Muslims. 1058: Start of less tolerant policy towards Christians and Jews by the Seljuk authorities in the Abbasid empire. Existing laws imposing distinctive dress are enforced. Non-Muslims in Baghdad are forced to wear signs on their dress.1085: Non-Muslims are required to wear distinctive signs on their turbans. 1091: Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadi decrees that the "non-believers" had to wear yellow headgear and girdles of various colors, and a sign of lead around their necks to show they had to pay the poll-tax. Women had to wear shoes of different colors, such as one red and the other black. 1121: A letter from Baghdad describes decrees regulating Jewish clothes: "two yellow badges, one on the headgear and one on the neck. Furthermore, each Jew must hang round his neck a piece of lead with the word dhimmi on it. He also has to wear a belt round his waist. The women have to wear one red and one black shoe and have a small bell on their necks or shoes." 1215: Fourth Lateran Council headed by Pope Innocent III declares: "Jews and Saracens of both sexes in every Christian province and at all times shall be marked off in the eyes of the public from other peoples through the character of their dress." 1219: Pope Honorius III issues a dispensation to the Jews of Castile. Spanish Jews normally wore turbans in any case, which presumably met the requirement to be distinctive.1222: Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton orders English Jews to wear white band, two fingers broad and four long. 1227: Synod of Narbonne rules: "That Jews may be distinguished from others, we decree and emphatically command that in the center of the breast (of their garments) they shall wear an oval badge, the measure of one finger in width and one half a palm in height." 1228: James I orders Jews of Aragon to wear the badge.1265: The Siete Partidas, a legal code enacted in Castile by Alfonso X but not implemented until many years later, includes a requirement for Jews to wear distinguishing marks. 1267: In a special session, the Vienna city council forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum (a cone-shaped head dress, common in medieval illustrations of Jews); the badge does not seem to have been worn in Austria.

1269 June 19: France. (Saint) Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without a badge (rouelle or roue, rota) to be fined ten livres of silver. The enforcement of wearing the badge is repeated by local councils, with varying degrees of fines, at Arles 1234 and 1260, Béziers 1246, Albi 1254, Nîmes 1284 and 1365, Avignon 1326 and 1337, Rodez 1336, and Vanves 1368.1274: The Statute of Jewry in England, enacted by King Edward I, enforces the regulations. "Each Jew, after he is seven years old, shall wear a distinguishing mark on his outer garment, that is to say, in the form of two Tables joined, of yellow felt of the length of six inches and of the breadth of three inches." 1294 October 16: Erfurt. The earliest mention of the badge in Germany.1315–1326: Emir Ismael Abu-I-Walid forces the Jews of Granada to wear the yellow badge.1321: Henry II of Castile forces the Jews to wear the yellow badge.1415 May 11: Bull of the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII orders the Jews to wear a yellow and red badge, the men on their breast, the women on their forehead.1434: Emperor Sigismund reintroduces the badge at Augsburg.1528: The Council of Ten of Venice allows the newly-arrived famous physician and professor Jacob Mantino ben Samuel to wear the regular black doctors' cap instead of Jewish yellow hat for several months (subsequently made permanent), upon the recommendation of the French and English ambassadors, the papal legate, and other dignitaries numbered among his patients. 1555: Pope Paul IV decrees, in his Cum nimis absurdum, that the Jews should wear yellow hats. 1566: King Sigismund II passes a law that required Lithuanian Jews to wear yellow hats and head coverings. The law was abolished twenty years later.1710: Frederick William I of Prussia abolished the mandatory Jewish yellow patch in return for a payment of 8,000 thaler (about $75,000 worth of silver at 2007 prices) each. 1933–1945: The Nazi regimes in the occupied countries of Europe force Jews to wear an identifying mark under the threat of death. There are no consistent requirements as to its color and shape: it varies from a white armband to a yellow Star of David badge. 1940: A popular legend portrays king Christian X of Denmark wearing the yellow badge on his daily morning horseback ride through the streets of Copenhagen, followed by non-Jewish Danes responding to their king's example, thus preventing the Germans from identifying Jewish citizens. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark has explained that the story was not true. No order requiring Jews to wear identifying marks was ever introduced in Denmark.2001: During the reign of the Islamist Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the Hindu minority in the country were forced to wear yellow badges in public to identify themselves as such. This was part of the Taliban's plan to segregate "un-Islamic" and "idolatrous" communities from Islamic ones. The decree was condemned by the Governments of the United States and India as a gross violation of religious freedom. In the United States, the chairman of the Anti-Defamation League Abraham Foxman compared the decree to the earlier practices of Nazi Germany. Widespread protests against the Taliban regime broke out in Bhopal, India. The Government of India condemned this decree as a violation of religious freedom. In the United States, congressmen and several lawmakers wore yellow badges on the floor of the Senate during the debate as a demonstration of their solidarity with the Hindu minority in Afghanistan.

See also

References

External links

Yellow badges in the Middle Ages

Yellow badges in the Nazi period 1939-1945

Denmark: The king against the yellow badge

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