The Yakovlev Yak-18 (Russian: Як-18, also transcribed as Jak-18, NATO reporting name Max) was a Soviet tandem two-seat military primary trainer aircraft. Originally powered by one 160 hp Shvetsov M-11FR-1 radial piston engine, it entered service in 1946. It is also produced in China as the Nanchang CJ-5.
Design and development
A member of the second generation of Russian aircraft designers, and best known for fighter designs, Alexander S. Yakovlev
always retained a light aircraft design section. In May 1945, Yakovlev initiated design of the Yak-18 two-seat primary trainer. He designed it to replace the earlier Yakovlev UT-2
in service with the Soviet Air Forces
(Voluntary Society for Collaboration with the Army, Air Force and Navy, which sponsored aero clubs throughout the USSR). The new aircraft flew a year later, powered by a Shvetsov M-11
five-cylinder radial engine and featuring a retractable tailwheel landing gear
. The design proved exceptionally easy to build and maintain, and it continues in production today, 55 years later, in two of its many variants, the four-seat Yak-18T and two-seat Yak-54.
The CJ 6a, produced in China
, is sometimes quoted as a variant but is a completely different aircraft but uses some Yakovlev features such as the undercarriage
from the tricycle version of the Yak 11.
The Yak-18 became the standard trainer for Air Force flying schools and DOSAAF, is in wide use in China, and in many other countries.
- The original production version.Yak-18A
- Re-engined version, powered by a 194-kW (260-hp) Ivchenko AI-14 FR engine. Built in large numbers.Yak-18U
- This version was built in small numbers, but it had retractable tricycle landing gear. Yak-18P (NATO reporting name: Mouse)
- Single-seat aerobatic aircraft for use by flying clubs. Adaptation of Yak-18 two-seat trainer.Yak-18PM
- Aerobatic aircraft.Yak-18PS
- Aerobatic aircraft with retractable tailwheel.Yak-18T
- Aeroflot training aircraft. The Yak-18T is also a light passenger transport aircraft, with a 4-seat cabin for one pilot and three passengers.Nanchang CJ-5
- The Yak-18 was built under licence in China as the CJ-5.