Vratislaus II or Wratislaus II (Vratislav II) (died 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt, daughter of Henry of Schweinfurt, was the first King of Bohemia from 15 June 1085. The royal title was a grant, however, from the Holy Roman Emperor and was not hereditary. Before being raised to kingship, he had ruled Bohemia as duke since 1061. He was one of the greatest of medieval Bohemian rulers.
On his father's death in 1055, Vratislaus became duke of Olomouc. He fell out with his brother Spytihnev II and was exiled to Hungary. Vratislaus regained his Moravian ducal throne with Hungarian assistance and eventually reconciled with his brother and succeed him as duke of Bohemia.
The Saxons revolted under their Duke Magnus and Otto of Nordheim, Duke of Bavaria, in 1070 and Boleslaus of Poland attacked Bohemia in 1071. In August 1073, Henry responded with an invasion of Poland, but a new Saxon revolt drew him back in 1075. Vratislaus joined him and they defeated the rebels on June 9 at the First Battle of Langensalza. The Bohemian troops showed conspicuous bravery. Henry then took Jaromir to Germany to be his chancellor by the name of Gebhard and Vratislaus was greatly relieved.
Vratislaus also took part in the wars against the anti-kings who opposed Henry's rule and were elected by a part of the nobility to replace him. At the Battle of Flarchheim, only through the aid of Vratislaus' contingent was the imperial army capable of overcoming the rebels of the papally-approved claimant Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia. Vratislaus even succeeded in seizing Rudolf's gold sword. The gold sword was carried in front of Vratislaus on state occasions. Vratislaus raised an army to serve in Henry's Italian campaign of 1081. In 1083, Vratislaus and his Bohemians were with Henry when they entered the Eternal City itself. Despite his serving an excommunicate emperor, Vratislaus maintained good relations with the papacy. Nonetheless, Gregory refused to grant Vratislaus permission to use the Slavonic liturgy. Never, however, did Vratislaus link his fate with that of Henry's antipope, Clement III.
Sadly for Vratislaus, his last years were occupied by dynastic quarrelling. When his brother Otto died in 1086, he gave Olomouc to his son Boleslaus, which was seen to be an act against the interests of Conrad. Vratislaus raised an army against Conrad and sent it out under his other son Bretislaus. Instead, this son turned on him. Vratislaus, in keeping with Bohemian custom, designated an heir: Conrad. Thus reconciled with his surviving brother, the two demolished Bretislaus, who fled to Hungary.
Vratislaus died of a hunting wound on January 14, 1092, after a reign of thirty years.