The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade. The WTO came into being on 1 January 1995, and is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was created in 1947, and continued to operate for almost five decades as a de facto international organization.
The World Trade Organization deals with the rules of trade between nations at a near-global level; it is responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements, and is in charge of policing member countries' adherence to all the WTO agreements, signed by the majority of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round. The organization is currently working with its members on a new trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda (Doha round), launched in 2001.
The WTO has 153 members, which represents more than 95% of total world trade. The WTO is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every two years; a General Council, which implements the conference's policy decisions and is responsible for day-to-day administration; and a director-general, who is appointed by the Ministerial Conference. The WTO's headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland.
ITO and GATT 1947
The WTO's predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established after World War II
in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation - notably the Bretton Woods institutions
known as the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund
. A comparable international institution for trade, named the International Trade Organization
was successfully negotiated. The ITO was to be a United Nations specialized agency and would address not only trade barriers but other issues indirectly related to trade, including employment, investment, restrictive business practices, and commodity agreements. But the ITO treaty was not approved by the United States and a few other signatories and never went into effect.
In the absence of an international organization for trade, the GATT would over the years "transform itself" into a de facto international organization.
GATT rounds of negotiations
The GATT was the only multilateral
instrument governing international trade from 1948 until the WTO was established in 1995. Despite attempts in the mid 1950s and 1960s to create some form of institutional mechanism for international trade, the GATT continued to operate for almost half a century as a semi-institutionalized multilateral treaty regime on a provisional basis.
From Geneva to Tokyo
Seven rounds of negotiations occurred under the GATT. The first GATT trade rounds concentrated on further reducing tariffs
. Then, the Kennedy Round in the mid-sixties brought about a GATT anti-dumping
Agreement and a section on development. The Tokyo Round during the seventies was the first major attempt to tackle trade barriers that do not take the form of tariffs, and to improve the system, adopting a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers, which in some cases interpreted existing GATT rules, and in others broke entirely new ground. Because these plurilateral agreements
were not accepted by the full GATT membership, they were often informally called "codes". Several of these codes were amended in the Uruguay Round, and turned into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO members. Only four remained plurilateral (those on government procurement, bovine meat, civil aircraft and dairy products), but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the bovine meat and dairy agreements, leaving only two.
Well before GATT's 40th anniversary, its members concluded that the GATT system was straining to adapt to a new globalizing world economy. In response to the problems identified in the 1982 Ministerial Declaration (structural deficiencies, spill-over impacts of certain countries' policies on world trade GATT could not manage etc.), the eighth GATT round — known as the Uruguay Round — was launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay. It was the biggest negotiating mandate on trade ever agreed: the talks were going to extend the trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT articles were up for review.
The GATT still exists as the WTO's umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations (a distinction is made between GATT 1994, the updated parts of GATT, and GATT 1947, the original agreement which is still the heart of GATT 1994). The GATT 1994 is not however the only legally binding agreement included in the Final Act; a long list of about 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and understandings was adopted. The agreements fall into a structure with six main parts:
First ministerial conference
The inaugural ministerial conference was held in Singapore in 1996. Disagreements between largely developed and developing economies emerged during this conference over four issues initiated by this conference, which led to them being collectively referred to as the "Singapore issues".
Second ministerial conference
Was held in Geneva in Switzerland.
Third ministerial conference
The third conference in Seattle, Washington ended in failure, with massive demonstrations and police and National Guard crowd control efforts drawing worldwide attention.
Fourth ministerial conference
Was held in Doha In Persian Gulf nation of Qatar. The Doha Development Round was launched at the conference. The conference also approved the joining of China, which became the 143 member to join.
Fifth ministerial conference
The ministerial conference was held in Cancún
, aiming at forging agreement on the Doha round. An alliance of 22 southern
states, the G20
(led by India, China and Brazil), resisted demands from the North
for agreements on the so-called "Singapore issues
" and called for an end to agricultural subsidies
within the EU and the US. The talks broke down without progress.
Sixth ministerial conference
The sixth WTO Conference Ministerial was held in Hong Kong
from 13 December – 18 December 2005. It was considered vital if the four-year-old Doha Development Agenda
negotiations were to move forward sufficiently to conclude the round in 2006. In this meeting, countries agreed to phase out all their agricultural export subsidies by the end of 2013, and terminate any cotton export subsidies by the end of 2006. Further concessions to developing countries included an agreement to introduce duty free, tariff free access for goods from the Least Developed Countries, following the Everything But Arms initiative of the European Union — but with up to 3% of tariff lines exempted. Other major issues were left for further negotiation to be completed by the end of 2006.
The WTO launched the current round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) or Doha Round, at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. The Doha round was to be an ambitious effort to make globalisation more inclusive and help the world's poor, particularly by slashing barriers and subsidies in farming. The initial agenda comprised both further trade liberalization and new rule-making, underpinned by commitments to strengthen substantial assistance to developing countries.
The negotiations have been highly contentious and agreement has not been reached, despite the intense negotiations at several Ministerial Conferences and at other sessions. Disagreements still continue over several key areas including agriculture subsidies.
Mission, functions and principles
The WTO's stated goal is to improve the welfare of the people of its member countries, specifically by lowering trade barriers
and providing a platform for negotiation of trade. Its main mission is "to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible". This main mission is further specified in certain core functions serving and safeguarding five fundamental principles, which are the foundation of the multilateral trading system. The WTO/GATT system is founded on non-discrimination, with its twin faces of Most-Favoured-Nation
and National Treatment
Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important:
- It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements.
- It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes.
Additionally, it is the WTO's duty to review the national trade policies, and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making. Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training. The WTO is also a center of economic research and analysis: regular assessments of the global trade picture in its annual publications and research reports on specific topics are produced by the organization. Finally, the WTO cooperates closely with the two other components of the Bretton Woods system, the IMF and the World Bank.
Principles of the trading system
The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes. That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games. Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO:
- Non-Discrimination. It has two major components: the most favoured nation (MFN) rule, and the national treatment policy. Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas. The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same conditions on all trade with other WTO members, i.e. a WTO member has to grant the most favorable conditions under which it allows trade in a certain product type to all other WTO members. "Grant someone a special favour and you have to do the same for all other WTO members." National treatment means that imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally (at least after the foreign goods have entered the market) and was introduced to tackle non-tariff barriers to trade (e.g. technical standards, security standards et al. discriminating against imported goods).
- Reciprocity. It reflects both a desire to limit the scope of free-riding that may arise because of the MFN rule, and a desire to obtain better access to foreign markets. A related point is that for a nation to negotiate, it is necessary that the gain from doing so be greater than the gain available from unilateral liberalization; reciprocal concessions intend to ensure that such gains will materialize.
- Binding and enforceable commitments. The tariff commitments made by WTO members in a multilateral trade negotiation and on accession are enumerated in a schedule (list) of concessions. These schedules establish "ceiling bindings": a country can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. If satisfaction is not obtained, the complaining country may invoke the WTO dispute settlement procedures.
- Transparency. The WTO members are required to publish their trade regulations, to maintain institutions allowing for the review of administrative decisions affecting trade, to respond to requests for information by other members, and to notify changes in trade policies to the WTO. These internal transparency requirements are supplemented and facilitated by periodic country-specific reports (trade policy reviews) through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM). The WTO system tries also to improve predictability and stability, discouraging the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports.
- Safety valves. In specific circumstances, governments are able to restrict trade. There are three types of provisions in this direction: articles allowing for the use of trade measures to attain noneconomic objectives; articles aimed at ensuring "fair competition"; and provisions permitting intervention in trade for economic reasons….
According to WTO rules, all WTO members may participate in all councils, committees, etc., except the Appellate Body
, Dispute Settlement
panels, and plurilateral
committees. Decisions within the WTO are made by members, not staff, and they are made by consensus, not by formal vote.
The topmost decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which tends to meet every two years. There has been six conferences, with the last one being in December 2005. The conferences are attended by all members of the WTO. The Ministerial Conference can make decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements . The first meeting of the Ministerial Conference was held in Singapore on 9 December-13, 1996.
The daily work of the ministerial conference is handled by three groups: the General Council, the Dispute Settlement Body, and the Trade Policy Review Body. All three consist of the same membership — representatives of all WTO members — but each meets under different rules and chairpersons. The General Council has several other councils and committees that work underneath the Council.
The General Council, the WTO’s highest-level decision-making body in Geneva, meets regularly to run the WTO. The council has authority to act on behalf of the ministerial conference. The current chairman is Bruce Gosper of Australia.
The Dispute Settlement Body is charged with setting trade disputes between members. The current chairperson is Mario Matus of Chile.
The Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB) is tasked with trade policy reviews of Members under the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM). All members are reviewed periodically. The time in between reviews are subject to the member's total shares of world trade. The largest four, currently the European Communities, the United States, Japan and China, are reviewed every two years. The next 16 are reviewed every four years. All other members are reviewed every six years. In some cases, the least-developed nations are allowed longer periods between reviews. The current chairperson is Yonov Frederick Agah of Nigeria.
Councils for Trade
The Councils for Trade work under the General Council. There are three councils — Council for Trade in Goods, Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, and Council for Trade in Services — each council works in different fields. Apart from these three councils, six other bodies report to the General Council reporting on issues such as trade and development, environmentalism, regional trading arrangements and administrative issues.
Council for Trade in Goods
The workings of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) which covers international trade in goods, are the responsibility of the Council for Trade in Goods.It is made up of representatives from all WTO member countries. The current chairperson, as of 2007-02-13
, is Yonov Frederick Agah
There are 11 committees under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council each with a specific task. All members of the WTO participate in the committees. The Textiles Monitoring Body is separate from the other committees but still under the jurisdiction of Goods Council. The body has its own chairman and only ten members. The body also has several groups relating to textiles.
Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Information on intellectual property in the WTO, news and official records of the activities of the TRIPS Council, and details of the WTO’s work with other international organizations in the field.
Council for Trade in Services
The Council for Trade in Services operates under the guidance of the General Council and is responsible for overseeing the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS). It is open to all WTO members, and can create subsidiary bodies as required.
The Service Council has three subsidiary bodies: financial services, domestic regulations, GATS rules and specific commitments.
The General council has several different committees, working groups, and working parties.
- Trade and Environment
- Trade and Development (Subcommittee on Least-Developed Countries)
- Regional Trade Agreements
- Balance of Payments Restrictions
- Budget, Finance and Administration
Working parties on
Working groups on
- Trade, debt and finance
- Trade and technology transfer
Trade Negotiations Committee
The Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) is the committee that deals with the current trade talks round. The chair is WTO’s director-general. The committee is currently tasked with the Doha Development Round.
The WTO operates on a one country, one vote
system, but actual votes have never been taken. Decisionmaking is generally by consensus, and relative market size is the primary source of bargaining power. The advantage of consensus decision-making is that it encourages efforts to find the most widely acceptable decision. Main disadvantages include large time requirements and many rounds of negotiation to develop a consensus decision, and the tendency for final agreements to use ambiguous language on contentious points that makes future interpretation of treaties difficult.
In reality, WTO negotiations proceed not by consensus of all members, but by a process of informal negotiations between small groups of countries. Such negotiations are often called "Green Room" negotiations (after the colour of the WTO Director-General's Office in Geneva), or "Mini-Ministerials", when they occur in other countries. These processes have been regularly criticized by many of the WTO's developing country members which are often totally excluded from the negotiations.
Richard Steinberg (2002) argues that although the WTO's consensus governance model provides law-based initial bargaining, trading rounds close through power-based bargaining favouring Europe and the United States, and may not lead to Pareto improvement.
In 1994, the WTO members agreed on the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) annexed to the "Final Act" signed in Marrakesh in 1994. Dispute settlement is regarded by the WTO as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as a "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy". WTO members have agreed that, if they believe fellow-members are violating trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally.
The operation of the WTO dispute settlement process involves the DSB panels, the Appellate Body, the WTO Secretariat, arbitrators, independent experts and several specialized institutions.
Accession and membership
The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and current trade regime. The process takes about five years, on average, but it can last more if the country is less than fully committed to the process or if political issues interfere. As is typical of WTO procedures, an offer of accession is only given once consensus is reached among interested parties.
A country wishing to accede to the WTO submits an application to the General Council, and has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements. The application is submitted to the WTO in a memorandum which is examined by a working party open to all interested WTO Members. After all necessary background information has been acquired, the working party focuses on issues of discrepancy between the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic trade policies and laws. The working party determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may consider transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules. The final phase of accession involves bilateral negotiations between the applicant nation and other working party members regarding the concessions and commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services. The new member's commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, even though they are negotiated bilaterally.
When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party sends to the General Council or Ministerial Conference an accession package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession (a draft membership treaty), and lists ("schedules") of the member-to-be's commitments. Once the General Council or Ministerial Conference approves of the terms of accession, the applicant's parliament must ratify the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member.
Members and observers
The WTO has 153 members (almost all of the 123 nations participating in the Uruguay Round signed on at its foundation, and the rest had to get membership). The 27 states of the European Union are represented also as the European Communities. WTO members do not have to be full sovereign nation-members. Instead, they must be a customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of their external commercial relations. Thus Hong Kong (as "Hong Kong, China" since 1997) became a GATT contracting party, and the Republic of China (commonly known as 'Taiwan', whose sovereignty has been disputed by the People's Republic of China) acceded to the WTO in 2002 under the name of "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu" (Chinese Taipei). A number of non-members have been observers (28) at the WTO and are currently negotiating their membership. With the exception of the Holy See, observers must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers. Some international intergovernmental organizations are also granted observer status to WTO bodies. 14 states and 2 territories so far have no official interaction with the WTO.
The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession. A list of WTO agreements can be found here
A discussion of some of the most important agreements follows.
Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)
The Agreement on Agriculture
came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": domestic support
, market access
and export subsidies
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
The General Agreement on Trade in Services
was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector
, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) provides such a system for merchandise trade. The Agreement entered into force in January 1995
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement(TRIPs)
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property
(IP) regulation. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994.
Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Agreement
The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
- also known as the SPS Agreement was negotiated during the Uruguay Round
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995.
Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) as well as animal and plant health (imported pests and diseases).
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
is an international treaty
of the World Trade Organization. It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round
of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the end of 1994.
The object of the TBT Agreement is to "to ensure that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade".
The stated aim of the WTO is to promote free trade and stimulate economic growth. Some people argue that free trade leads to a divergence instead of convergence of income levels within rich and poor countries (the rich get richer and the poor get poorer). Martin Khor, Director of the Third World Network, argues that the WTO does not manage the global economy impartially, but in its operation has a systematic bias toward rich countries and multinational corporations, harming smaller countries which have less negotiation power. He argues that developing countries have not benefited from the WTO Agreements of the Uruguay Round, because (among other reasons): market access in industry has not improved; these countries have had no gains yet from the phasing out of textiles quotas; non-tariff barriers such as anti-dumping measures have increased; and domestic support and export subsidies for agricultural products in the rich countries remain high. Jagdish Bhagwati asserts however that there is greater tariff protection on manufacturers in the poor countries, which are also overtaking the rich nations in the number of anti-dumping filings.
Other critics claim that the issues of labor relations and environment are steadfastly ignored. Steve Charnovitz, former Director of the Global Environment and Trade Study (GETS), believes that the WTO "should begin to address the link between trade and labor and environmental concerns." Further, labor unions condemn the labor rights record of developing countries, arguing that to the extent the WTO succeeds at promoting globalization, then in equal measure do the environment and labor rights suffer. On the other side, Khor responds that "if environment and labor were to enter the WTO system [...] it would be conceptually difficult to argue why other social and cultural issues should also not enter." Bhagwati is also critical towards "rich-country lobbies seeking on imposing their unrelated agendas on trade agreements." Therefore, both Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya. Professor at Columbia University, have criticized the introduction of TRIPs into the WTO framework, fearing that such non-trade agendas might overwhelm the organization's function.
Other critics have characterized the decision making in the WTO as complicated, ineffective, unrepresentative and non-inclusive, and they have proposed the establishment of a small, informal steering committee (a "consultative board") that can be delegated responsibility for developing consensus on trade issues among the member countries. The Third World Network has called the WTO "the most non-transparent of international organisations", because "the vast majority of developing countries have very little real say in the WTO system"; the Network stresses that "civil society groups and institutions must be given genuine opportunities to express their views and to influence the outcome of policies and decisions." Certain non-governmental organizations, such as the World Federalist Movement, argue that democratic participation in the WTO could be enhanced through the creation of a parliamentary assembly, although other analysts have characterized this proposal as ineffective.
References and notes
- Bhagwati, Jagdish (2005). "From Seattle to Hong Kong". Foreign Affairs 84 (7): Article 15. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
- Bhagwati, Jagdish (2005). "Reshaping the WTO". Far Eastern Economic Review 162 (22): 25–30. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
- Blackhurst, Richard (2000). "Reforming WTO Decision Making: Lessons from Singapore and Seattle". Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform (Working Paper No 63): 1–20. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- Bossche, Peter van den (2005). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Materials. Cambridge University Press.
- Bredimas, Antonis (1996). International Economic Law. Athens: Ant. N.Sakkoulas Publishers.
- Cline, William R. (2004). Trade Policy and Global Poverty. Peterson Institute.
- Eckes, Jr., Alfred E. (1999). U.S. Trade Policy: History, Theory and the WTO. M.E. Sharpe.
- Farah, Paolo (2006). "Five Years of China WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives about China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism". Legal Issues of Economic Integration 33 (3): Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- Footer, Mary E. (2006). An Institutional and Normative Analysis of the World Trade Organization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
- Gallagher, Peter (2005). The First Ten Years of the WTO: 1995-2005. Cambridge University Press.
- Hoekman, Bernard (2002). Development, Trade, and the WTO: A Handbook. World Bank Publications.
- "In the Twilight of Doha". The Economist (29 July - 4 August 2006) 380 (8488): 65–66. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
- Jackson, John H. (1994). Managing the World Economy: Fifty Years after Bretton Woods. Institute for International Economics.
- Jackson, John H. (2006). Sovereignty, the WTO and Changing Fundamentals of International Law. Cambridge University Press.
- Kenen, Peter B. (1999 – first published 1994). The International Economy (Volume I). Third, Athens: Papazisis (in English: Cambridge University Press).
- Kennedy, Kevin C. (2006). Agricultural Standards: The Shape of the Global Food And Fiber System. Springer.
- Khor, Martin (2002). Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives for a Just World Economy. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Klapper, Bradley S. "With a 'Short Window,' one more Try for Deal on World Trade Talks". The International Herald Tribune Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- Lowenfeld, Andreas F. (1991 – 2007). Handbook of WTO/GATT Dispute Settlement. Translations Publishers, Inc.
- Lowenfeld, Andreas F. (2002). International Economic Law. Oxford University Press.
- Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio "Time to Get Serious about Agricultural Subsidies". The International Herald Tribune Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- Martin, Will; Dwyer, Amy S. (1995). The Uruguay Round: Widening and Deepening the World Trading System. World Bank Publications.
- Michalopoulos, Constantine (2002). Development, Trade, and the WTO: A Handbook. World Bank Publications.
- Palmeter, N. David; Winters, Allan L. (2004). Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization: Practice and Procedure. Cambridge University Press.
- Panitchpakdi, Supachai (2006). The WTO at Ten: The Contribution of the Dispute Settlement System. Cambridge University Press.
- Panizzon, Marion (2006). Good Faith in the Jurisprudence of the WTO. Hart Publishing.
- Smithies, Arthur (1954). "Reflections on the Work and Influence of John Maynard Keynes". The Quarterly Journal of Economics 65 (4): 578–601. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- Stewart, Terence P.; Dwyer, Amy S. (1991 – 2007). Handbook of WTO/GATT Dispute Settlement. Translations Publishers, Inc.
- Van der Borght, Kim (1999). "The Advisory Center on the WTO Law: Advancing Fairness and Equality". Journal of International Economic Law 2 (4): 723–728. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- Warren, Neil (2005). Economics of Globalisation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..
- World Trade Organization. In Encyclopaedia Britannica (2002). .
- Accessions Summary. Global trade Negotiations. Center for International Development at Harvard University. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Aslund, Anders Russia's WTO Accession. Speeches, Testimony, Papers. Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Politics. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Charnovitz, Steve Addressing Environmental and Labor Issues in the World Trade Organization. Trade and Global Markets: World Trade Organization. Progressive Policy Institute. Retrieved on 2007-03-22..
- Deere, Carolyn Decision-making in the WTO: Medieval or Up-to-Date?. WTO Public Forum: what for the XXIst Century?. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-17..
- Economic Research and Analysis. World Trade Organization. .
- "Factsheet on U.S. – Russia WTO Bilateral Market Access Agreement". Office of the United States Trade Representative, Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- Functions of the WTO. The Basics of the WTO. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Retrieved on 2007-03-17..
- How to Become a Member of the WTO. Accession: Explanation. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Jennar, Raoul Marc A "Consultative Parliamentary Assembly" to the WTO: a Reform that Changes Nothing. Unité de Recherche, de Formation et d'Information sur la Globalisation. Retrieved on 2007-03-23..
- International Intergovernmental Organizations Granted Observer Status to WTO bodies. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Khor, Martin Rethinking Liberalization And Reforming The WTO. Third World Network. Retrieved on 2007-03-22..
- Lamy: "We have resumed negotiations fully across the board". WTO: 2007 News Items. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-12..
- Members and Observers. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Membership, Alliances and Bureaucracy. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Novostei, Vremya "USA OKs Russia's Entry into WTO". Pravda.Ru, Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- Overview: a Navigational Guide. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Panagariya, Arvind TRIPS and the WTO: an Uneasy Message. Retrieved on 2007-03-22..
- Principles of the Trading System. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-17..
- Reform of the World Trade Organization and International Financial Organizations. Global Economic Governance. World Federalist Movement. Retrieved on 2007-03-23..
- Russia - WTO: EU-Russia Deal Brings Russia a Step Closer to WTO Membership. External Relations – The EU's Relations with Russia. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Russian Federation. Accessions. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- Schott, Jeffrey J.; Watal, Jayashree Decision-Making in the WTO. Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics. (2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-23..
- Settling Disputes:A Unique Contribution. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-11..
- The Doha Development Agenda. EU & WTO. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-03-12..
- The GATT years: from Havana to Marrakesh. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-15..
- The Uruguay Round. Understanding the WTO. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
- The WTO In Brief. World Trade Organization. Retrieved on 2007-03-07..
- Transparency, Participation and Legitimacy Of the WTO. Third World Network. (1999). Retrieved on 2007-03-23..
- Uruguay Round Agreements, Understandings, Decisions and Declarations. WorldTradeLaw.net. Retrieved on 2007-03-16..
Books and reports on the WTO
- What happened in Hong Kong? Initial analysis of the WTO Ministerial, Oxfam International, December 2005.
- Sailing Close to the Wind: Navigating the WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Dec 2005.
- , Global Trade Watch, Dec 2005.
- Public Citizen, 7 December 2005.
- , Focus on the Global South, Dec 2005.
- Martin Khor et al (2005), WTO and the Global Trading System: Development Impacts and Reform Proposals, Zed Books
- Fatoumata Jawara and Aileen Kwa (2004), Behind the Scenes at the WTO: The Real World of International Trade Negotiations/Lessons of Cancun, Zed Books
- , Compiled by 3D (Trade, Human Rights, Equitable Economy)], July 2004.
- Steinberg, Richard H. (2002). In the shadow of law or power? Consensus-based bargaining and outcomes in the GATT/WTO. International Organization 56 (2), 339–374.
- Wagner, Johann (2006). Direkte Steuern und Welthandelsrecht - Das Verbot ertragsteuerlicher Exportsubventionen im Recht der WTO. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2006.
- European Trade Union Institute - Series of reports on WTO and Asbestos
- More references at the WorldTradeLawnet Bibliography
- The World Trade Organization (WTO): Selective Bibliography, prepared by Hugo H.R. van Hamel, Peace Palace Library
- Jones, Kent (2004). Who's Afraid of the WTO?
Articles on the WTO
- Is Trade Liberalization a Product of Domestic or International Processes? Lessons from Doha
- Leading the Way: How U.S.Trade Policy Can Overcome Doha's Failings
- Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives about China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263-304, August 2006. by Paolo Farah
- www.globalexchange.org — Top Reasons to Oppose the WTO, Sept 2005.
- Whither the WTO? A Progress Report on the Doha Round
- The WTO Conference in Seattle — “failed”: The Nations’ Struggle for the Wealth of the World and its Latest Battlefields, 2004.
- Guardian Unlimited - Time for Tranformation — by George Monbiot, 8 September 2003.
- Why the WTO Is Going Nowhere, By William Greider, The Nation, 4 September 2003.
- Monthly Review - WTO stops world taking over?!, January 2000.
- www.sfgate.com — Is the World Trade Organization a blessing or a curse? by Kevin Phillips, 29 November 1999.
- Slate — Enemies of the WTO: Bogus Arguments against the World Trade Organization by Paul Krugman, 24 November 1999
- World Trade Organisation (WTO): An illegal organisation that violates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, By Michel Chossudovsky, Nov 1999.
- Mapping the Law of WTO Accession(2006) By Steve Charnovitz
- Seattle and Beyond: A WTO Agenda for the New Millennium
Official WTO Pages
Government Pages on the WTO
Media Pages on the WTO
Non-Governmental Organization Pages on the WTO (Alphabetical List)