In organizational development
(OD), work design
is the application of Socio-Technical Systems
principles and techniques to the humanization of work.
The aims of work design to improved job satisfaction, to improved through-put, to improved quality and to reduced employee problems, e.g., grievances, absenteeism.
Influence on work design
Under scientific management
people would be directed by reason and the problems of industrial unrest would be appropriately (i.e., scientifically) addressed. This philosophy is oriented toward the maximum gains possible to employees. Managers would guarantee that their subordinates would have access to the maximum of economic gains by means of rationalized processes. Organizations were portrayed as rationalized sites, designed and managed according to a rule of rationality imported from the world of technique
Human Relations School
The Human Relations Movement
takes the view that businesses are social systems in which psychological and emotional factors have a significant influence on productivity. The common elements in human relations theory are the beliefs that
- Performance can be improved by good human relations
- Managers should consult employees in matters that affect staff.
- Leaders should be democratic rather than authoritarian.
- Employees are motivated by social and psychological rewards and are not just "economic animals"
- The work group plays an important part in influencing performance
aims on jointly optimizing the operation of the social and technical system; the good or service would then be efficiently produced and psychological needs of the workers fulfilled. Embedded in Socio-technical Systems are motivational assumptions, such as intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Work reform states about the workplace relation and the changes made which are more suitable to management and employee to encourage increased workforce participation.