The winter solstice
occurs at the instant when the Sun
's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane
from the observer. Depending on the shift of the calendar, the event of the winter solstice
occurs some time between December 20
and December 23
each year in the northern hemisphere
, and between June 20
and June 23
in the southern hemisphere
, during either the shortest day
or the longest night of the year
, which is not to be confused with the darkest
day or night or the day with the earliest sunset or latest sunrise. Though the Winter Solstice lasts an instant, the term is also used to refer to the full 24-hour period.
Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied from culture to culture, but most cultures have held a recognition of rebirth, involving holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.
The seasonal significance of the Winter Solstice is varied, since it is sometimes said to astronomically mark either the beginning or middle of a hemisphere's Winter. Winter is a subjective term, so there is no scientifically established beginning or middle of winter but the Winter Solstice itself is clearly defined within a second.
The word solstice derives from Latin sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still), Winter Solstice meaning Sun standstill in winter.
Calendrically, in most countries the time of the winter solstice is considered as midwinter. This is evident in calendars as far back as Ancient Egypt, whose system of seasons was gauged according to the flooding of the Nile. For Celtic countries, such as Ireland, the calendarical winter season has traditionally begun November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is February 1 or 2. This calendar system of seasons may be based on the length of days exclusively. Most East Asian cultures define the seasons by solar terms, with Dong zhi at the winter solstice as the middle or "extreme" of winter. This system is based on the sun's tilt. Some midwinter festivals have occurred according to lunar calendars and so took place on the night of Hōku (Hawaiian, the full moon closest to the winter solstice). And many European solar calendar midwinter celebrations still centre upon the night of December 24 leading into the December 25 in the north, which was considered to be the winter solstice upon the establishment of the Julian calendar. In Jewish culture, Teḳufat Tevet, the day of the winter solstice, is historically known as the first day of the "stripping time" or winter season. Persian cultures also recognize it as the beginning of winter.
Since 45 BCE, when the 25th was established in the Julian calendar as the winter solstice of Europe, the difference between the calendar year (365.2500 days) and the tropical year (365.2422 days) moved the day associated with the actual astronomical solstice forward approximately three days every four centuries until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the northern winter solstice to around December 21. Yearly, in the Gregorian calendar the solstice still moves around a bit, but in the longterm, only about one day per 3000 years.
The figures above show the differences between the Gregorian calendar (Figure 1: using 1 leap year per 4 years) and Persian Jalāli calendar (Figure 2: using the 33-year arithmetic approximation) in reference to the actual yearly time of the winter solstice of the northern hemisphere, the December solstice. The Y axis is "days error" and the X axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about 1/4 day per year, and is corrected by a leap year every 4th year regularly, and in the case of the Persian calendar also one 5 year leap period to complete a 33-year cycle, keeping the Persian winter solstice holiday on the same day every year.
History and cultural significance
Astronomical events, which during ancient times allowed for the scheduling of mating, sowing of crops and metering of winter reserves between harvests, show how various cultural mythologies and traditions have arisen. On the night of winter solstice, as seen from a northern sky, the three stars in Orion's Belt align with the brightest star in the eastern sky Sirius to show where the Sun will rise in the morning after winter solstice. Until this time, the Sun has exhibited since summer solstice a decreasing arc across the Southern sky. On winter solstice, the Sun ceases to decline in the sky and the length of daylight reaches its minimum for three days, during which the sun does not move on the horizon. After such a time, the Sun begins its ascent into the northern sky and days grow longer. Thus the interpretation by many cultures of a sun reborn and a return to light. This return to light is again celebrated at the vernal equinox, when the length of day equals that of night.
The solstice itself may have remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since neolithic times. This is attested by physical remains in the layouts of late Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites like Stonehenge in Britain and Brú na Bóinne (New Grange) in Ireland. The primary axes of both of these monuments seem to have been carefully aligned on a sight-line framing the winter solstice sunrise (New Grange) and the winter solstice sunset (Stonehenge). Significant in respect of Stonehenge is the fact that Great Trilithon was erected outwards from centre of the monument, i.e. its smooth flat face was turned towards the midwinter sun. The winter solstice may have been immensely important because communities were not assured to live through the winter, and had to be prepared during the previous nine months. Starvation was common in winter between January to April, also known as the famine months. In temperate climates, the midwinter festival was the last feast celebration, before deep winter began. Most cattle were slaughtered so they would not have to be fed during the winter, so it was nearly the only time of year when a supply of fresh meat was available. The majority of wine and beer made during the year was finally fermented and ready for drinking at this time. The concentration of the observances were not always on the day commencing at midnight or at dawn, but the beginning of the pre-Romanized day, which falls on the previous eve.
Explanations for parallel traditions
Since the event is observed as the reversal of the Sun
presence in the sky, concepts of the birth or rebirth of sun gods
have been common and, in cultures using winter solstitially based cyclic calendars, the year as reborn
has been celebrated with regard to life-death-rebirth deities
or new beginnings
such as Hogmanay
, a New Years
cleaning tradition. Also reversal
is another usual theme as in Saturnalia
's slave and master reversals.
Migration and appropriation
Many outside traditions are often adopted by neighboring or invading cultures. Some historians will often assert that many traditions are directly derived from previous ones rooting all the way back to those begun in the cradle of civilization
or beyond, much in a way that correlates to speculations on the origins of languages
Even in modern cultures these gatherings are still valued for emotional comfort, having something to look forward to at the darkest time of the year. This is especially the case for populations in the near polar regions
of the hemisphere.
The depressive psychological
effects of winter on individuals and societies
are for the most part tied to coldness, tiredness, malaise
, and inactivity. Winter weather
, plus being indoors causes negative ion
deficiency which decreases serotonin
levels resulting in depression
Also, insufficient sunlight in the short winter days increases the secretion of melatonin in the body, off balancing the circadian rhythm with longer sleep. Exercise, light therapy, increased negative ion exposure (which can be attained from plants and well ventilated flames, burning wood or beeswax) can reinvigorate the body from its seasonal lull and relieve winter blues by decreasing melatonin secretions, increasing serotonin and temporarily creating a more even sleeping pattern.
Midwinter festivals and celebrations occurring on the longest night of the year, often calling for evergreens, bright illumination, large ongoing fires, feasting, communion with close ones, and evening physical exertion by dancing and singing are examples of cultural winter therapies that have evolved as traditions since the beginnings of civilization. Such traditions can stir the wit, stave off malaise, reset the internal clock and rekindle the human spirit.
The following is an alphabetical list of observances believed to be directly linked to the winter solstice. For other Winter observances see List of winter festivals.
Amaterasu celebration, Requiem of the Dead (7th century Japan)
In late seventh century Japan
, festivities were held to celebrate the reemergence of Amaterasu
, the sun goddess
of Japanese mythology
, from her seclusion in a cave. Tricked by the other gods with a loud celebration, she peeks out to look and finds the image of herself in a mirror and is convinced by the other gods to return, bringing sunlight back to the universe. Requiems
for the dead were held and Manzai
and Shishimai were performed throughout the night, awaiting the sunrise. Aspects of this tradition have continued to this day on New Years.
, indigenous people of Finland
, worship Beiwe
, the sun-goddess of fertility and sanity. She travels through the sky in a structure made of reindeer bones with her daughter, Beiwe-Neia, to herald back the greenery on which the reindeer feed. On the winter solstice, her worshipers sacrifice white female animals, and with the meat, thread and sticks, bed into rings with ribbons. They also cover their doorposts with butter so Beiwe can eat it and begin her journey once again.
In the ancient traditions of the Kalash
people of Pakistan
, during winter solstice, a demigod
returns to collect prayers and deliver them to Dezao, the supreme being. "During this celebrations women and girls are purified by taking ritual baths. The men pour water over their heads while they hold up bread. Then the men and boys are purified with water and must not sit on chairs until evening when goat's blood is sprinkled on their faces. Following this purification, a great festival begins, with singing, dancing, bonfires, and feasting on goat tripe and other delicacies".
Christmas, Natalis Domini (4th century Rome, 11th century England, Christian)
Christmas or Christ's Mass is one of the most popular Christian celebrations as well as one of the most globally recognized midwinter celebrations. Christmas is the celebration of the birth of the God Incarnate or Messiah, Yeshua of Nazareth, later known as Jesus Christ. The birth is observed on December 25, which was the winter solstice upon establishment of the Julian Calendar. Banned by the Catholic Church in its infancy as a pagan practice stemming out of the Sol Invictus celebrations, Christian churches eventually recognized the sustained practices as a Christian festival in various cultures within the past several hundred years, allowing much of the folklore and traditions of local pagan festivals to be preserved. So today, the old festivals such as Jul, Коледа and Karácsony, are still celebrated in many parts of Europe, but the Christian Nativity is now often representational as the meaning behind the holiday. This is why Yule and Christmas are considered interchangeable in Anglo-Christendom. Universal activities include feasting, midnight masses and singing Christmas carols about the Nativity. Good deeds and gift giving in the tradition of St. Nicholas by not admitting to being the actual gift giver is also observed by some countries. Many observe the holiday for twelve days leading up to the Epiphany.
Deuorius Riuri (Gaul)
was the annual great divine winter feast
, observed by the Coligny Calendar
. The lunisolar Coligney Midwinter returned to solar alignment every two and a half years.
The last day of the Persian month Azar
is the longest night of the year, when the forces of Ahriman
are assumed to be at the peak of their strength. The next day, the first day of the month Dey
, known as khoram ruz
or khore ruz
(the day of sun) belongs to God (Ahura Mazda
). Since the days are getting longer and the nights shorter, this day marks the victory of Sun over the darkness. The occasion was celebrated in the ancient Persian Deygan Festival
dedicated to Ahura Mazda, and Mithra
on the first day of the month Dey
The Winter Solstice Festival or The Extreme of Winter (Pinyin: Dōng zhì), (Rōmaji:
Tōji), (Romaja:Dongji) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; i.e., on the first day of the dongzhi solar term.
The origins of this festival can be traced back to the yin and yang philosophy of balance and
harmony in the cosmos. After this celebration, there will be days with longer daylight hours and therefore an increase in positive energy flowing in. The philosophical significance of this is
symbolized by the I Ching hexagram fù (復, "Returning"). Traditionally, the Dongzhi Festival is also a time for the family to get together. One activity that occurs during these get togethers (especially in the southern parts of China and in Chinese communities overseas) is the making and eating of Tangyuan (湯圓, as pronounced in Cantonese; Mandarin Pinyin: Tāng Yuán) or balls of glutinous rice, which symbolize reunion.
is the (December) winter solstice ceremony of the Pays Dogon
. It is the last harvest ritual and celebrates the arrival of humanity from the sky god, Amma
, via Nommo
inside the Aduno Koro
, or the "Ark of the World".
The New Years Eve
celebration of Scotland is called Hogmanay
. The name derives from the old Scots name for Yule gifts of the Middle Ages. The early Hogmanay celebrations were originally brought to Scotland by the invading and occupying Norse
who celebrated a solstitial new year (England celebrated the new year on March 25
). In 1600, with the Scottish application of the January 1
New year and the churches persistent suppression of the solstice celebrations, the holiday traditions moved to December 31
. The festival is still referred to as the Yules
by the Scots
of the Shetland Islands
who start the festival on December 18th and hold the last tradition (a Troll
chasing ritual) on January 18th. The most widespread Scottish custom is the practice of first-footing
which starts immediately after midnight on New Years. This involves being the first person (usually tall and dark haired) to cross the threshold of a friend or neighbor and often involves the giving of symbolic gifts such as salt (less common today), coal, shortbread
, and black bun (a fruit pudding) intended to bring different kinds of luck to the householder. Food and drink (as the gifts, and often Flies cemetery
) are then given to the guests.
The Inti Raymi or Festival of the Sun was a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the sun god Inti. It also marked the winter solstice and a new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. One ceremony performed by the Inca priests was the tying of the sun. In Machu Picchu there is still a large column of stone called an Intihuatana, meaning "hitching post of the sun" or literally for tying the sun. The ceremony to tie the sun to the stone was to prevent the sun from escaping. The Spanish conquest, never finding Machu Picchu, destroyed all the other intihuatana, extinguishing the sun tying practice. The Catholic Church managed to suppress all Inti festivals and ceremonies by 1572. Since 1944 a theatrical representation of the Inti Raymi has been taking place at Sacsayhuamán (two km. from Cusco) on June 24 of each year, attracting thousands of local visitors and tourists. The Monte Alto culture may have also had a similar tradition.
, in the Bahamas, Junkunno
, in Jamaica, is a fantastic masquerade, parade and street festival, believed to be of West African origin. It is traditionally performed through the streets towards the end of December, and involves participants dressed in a variety of fanciful costumes
, such as the Cow Head
, the Hobby Horse
, the Wild Indian
, and the Devil
. The parades are accompanied by bands usually consisting of fifes
, and coconut graters
used as scrapers, and Jonkanoo songs are also sung. A similar practice was once common in coastal North Carolina, where it was called John Canoe
, John Koonah
, or John Kooner
. John Canoe was likened to the wassailing
tradition of medieval Britain
. Both John Canoe and wassailing bear strong resemblance to the social inversion rituals that marked the ancient Roman celebration of Saturnalia
was a Slavic
holiday similar to Halloween
as a day when the Black God
and other evil spirits were most potent. It was celebrated by Slavs on the longest night of the year. On this night, Hors
, symbolising the old sun, becomes smaller as the days become shorter in the Northern Hemisphere, and dies on December 22nd
, the December solstice. He is said to be defeated by the dark and evil powers of the Black God. In honour of Hors, the Slavs danced a ritual chain-dance which was called the horo
. Traditional chain-dancing in Bulgaria
is still called horo
. In Russia
, it is known as khorovod
. On December 23rd
Hors is resurrected and becomes the new sun, Koleda
. On this day, Western Slavs
burned fires at cemeteries to keep their departed loved ones warm, organized dinings in the honor of the dead so as they would not suffer from hunger and lit wooden logs at local crossroads.
Koleda, Коляда, Sviatki, Dazh Boh (Ancient Eastern Slavic and Sarmatian)
In ancient Slavonic cultures, the festival of Kaleda
began at Winter Solstice and lasted for ten days. In Russia, this festival was later applied to Christmas Eve
but most of the practices were lost after the Soviet Revolution
. Each family made a fire in their hearth and invited their personal household gods to join in the festivities. Children disguise themselves on evenings and nights and as Koledari
, visited houses and sang wishes of good luck, like Shchedryk
, to hosts. As a reward, they were given little gifts, a tradition called Kolyadovanie
, much like the old wassailing
In the Aegean civilizations
, the exclusively female midwinter ritual, Lenaea
, was the Festival of the Wild Women
. In the forest, a man or bull representing the god Dionysus
was torn to pieces and eaten by Maenads
. Later in the ritual a baby, representing Dionysus reborn, was presented. Lenaion, the first month of the Delian calendar, derived its name from the festival's name. By classical times
, the human sacrifice had been replaced by that of a goat, and the women's role had changed to that of funeral mourners and observers of the birth. Wine miracles were performed by the priests, in which priests would seal water or juice in a room overnight and the next day they would have turned into wine. The miracle was said to have been performed by Dionysus and the Lenaians
. By the 5th century BCE the ritual had become a Gamelion
festival for theatrical competitions, often held in Athens in the Lenaion theater.
The festival influenced Brumalia
, an ancient Roman
solstice festival honoring Bacchus
, generally held for a month and ending December 25
. The festival included drinking and merriment. The name is derived from the Greek word bruma
, meaning "shortest day", though the festivities almost always occurred at night.
or Lussi Night
happened on December 13
, what was supposed to be the longest night of the year. The feast was later appropriated by the Catholic Church
in the 16th century as St. Lucy's Day
. It was believed in the folklore
of Sweden that if people, particularly children, did not carry out their chores, the female demon
, the Lussi
or Lucia die dunkle
would come to punish them.
, celebrated at the beginning of Uttarayana
, is the only Hindu festival which is based on the celestial calendar rather than the lunar calendar. The zodiac
having drifted from the solar calendar has caused the festival to now occur in mid-January (see precession of equinoxes
). In Tamil Nadu
it is celebrated as the festival of Pongal
. The day before Pongal, the last day of the previous year, they celebrate Bhogi
. In Assam
it is called Magh Bihu
(the First day of Magh), in Punjab Lohri
and in Maharshtra it is called Makar Sankranti
and is celebrated by exchanging balls of sesame candy (Til Gul
) and requesting each other to be as sweet as the candy balls for the next year. It is called Makara Sankrant because the sun enters the zodiacal sign of Capricorn on 14th January (Makar meaning Capricorn). It is celebrated with much pomp in Andhra Pradesh, where the festival is celebrated for three days and is more of a cultural festival than an auspicious day as in other parts of India. In some parts of India, the festival is celebrated by taking dips in the Ganga
or another river and offering water to the Sun god. The dip is said to purify the self and bestow punya
. In many countries, mainly in Gujarat
, families fly kites from their roofs all day and into the night. It is a form of celebrating and welcoming the longer days. In a symbolic way, thousands of kites with different colors flying in the sky give us a feeling of the earth welcoming the brighter, warmer sky. It is also very common to feed gras to the cows on this day. In Assam
on Bihu Eve or Uruka
families build house-like structures called bhelaghar
and separate large bhelaghar
are built by the community as a whole. Different sorts of twine are tied around fruit trees. Traditionally, fuel is stolen for the final ceremony, when all the bhelaghar
are burned. Their remains are then placed at the fruit trees. Special puja
is offered as a thanksgiving for good harvest. Since the festival is celebrated in midwinter, the foods prepared for this festival are such that they keep the body warm and give high energy. Laddu
made with jaggery
is specialty of the festival.
(Irish tr: midwinter
) or Grianstad an Gheimhridh
(Ir tr: winter solstice) is a name sometimes used for hypothetical midwinter rituals or celebrations of the Proto-Celtic
, and late Druids
. In Ireland
's calendars, the solstices and equinoxes
all occur at about midpoint in each season
. The passage and chamber of Newgrange
or possibly Proto-Celtic
3,200 BCE), a tomb in Ireland, are illuminated by the winter solstice sunrise. A shaft of sunlight shines through the roof box over the entrance and penetrates the passage to light up the chamber. The dramatic event lasts for 17 minutes at dawn from the 19th to the 23rd of December. The point of roughness
is the term for the winter solstice in Wales which in ancient Welsh mythology
, was when Rhiannon
gave birth to the sacred son, Pryderi
- For an unknown period, Lá an Dreoilín or Wren day has been celebrated in Ireland, the Isle of Man and Wales on December 26. Crowds of people, called wrenboys, take to the roads in various parts of Ireland, dressed in motley clothing, wearing masks or straw suits and accompanied by musicians supposedly in remembrance of the festival that was celebrated by the Druids. Previously the practice involved the killing of a wren, and singing songs while carrying the bird from house to house, stopping in for food and merriment.
- In England, during the 18th century, there was a revival of interest in Druids. Today, amongst Neo-druids, Alban Arthan (Welsh tr. light of winter but derived from Welsh poem, Light of Arthur) is celebrated on the winter solstice with a ritualistic festival, and gift giving to the needy.
and many surrounding parts of Europe
tribes celebrated a Midvinterblot
, featuring both animal and human sacrifice. The blot
was performed by goði
, or priests, at certain cult sites, most of which have churches built upon them now. Midvinterblot paid tribute to the local gods, appealing to them to let go winter's grip. The folk
tradition was finally abandoned by 1200, due to missionary
The Night of Mothers
or Mothers' Night
was an Anglo-Saxon
feast. It was believed that dreams on this night foretold events in the upcoming year. While it may originally have occurred the night before Samhain
according to a lunar calendar, it has moved around quite a bit in the year. By 730, It was thought by Bede
to be observed by the Anglo-Saxons
on the winter solstice. After the reemergence of Christmas in Britain
it was recognized by many as one of the Twelve Days of Christmas
(c.500-1000) considered the Norse goddess, Hertha
to be the goddess of light, domesticity and the home. They baked yeast cakes shaped like shoes, which were called Hertha's slippers
, and filled with gifts.
"During the Winter Solstice houses were decked with fir and evergreens to welcome her coming. When the family and serfs were gathered to dine, a great altar of flat stones was erected and here a fire of fir boughs was laid. Hertha descended through the smoke, guiding those who were wise in saga lore to foretell the fortunes of those persons at the feast". There are also darker versions of Perchta which terrorize children along with Krampus
. Many cities had practices of dramatizing the gods as characters roaming the streets. These traditions have continued in the rural regions of the Alps
, and various similar traditions, such as Wren day
, survived in the Celtic nations
In twelfth century Russia
, the eastern Slavs
worshiped the winter mother goddess, Rozhnitsa, offering bloodless sacrifices like honey, bread and cheese. Bright colored winter embroideries depicting the antlered goddess were made to honor the Feast of Rozhanitsa
in late December. And white, deer-shaped cookies were given as lucky gifts. Some Russian women continued the observation of these traditions into the 20th century.
Derived from a pre-Zoroastrian festival, Shabe Chelle
is celebrated on the eve of the first day of winter in the Persian calendar
, which always falls on the solstice. Yalda is the most important non-new-year Iranian festival in modern-day Iran and it has been long celebrated in Iran by all ethnic/religious groups. According to Persian mythology, Mithra
was born at the end of this night after the long-expected defeat of darkness against light. "Shabe Chelle" is now an important social occasion, when family and friends get together for fun and merriment. Usually families gather at their elders' homes. Different kinds of dried fruits, nuts, seeds and fresh winter fruits are consumed. The presence of dried and fresh fruits is reminiscence of the ancient feasts to celebrate and pray to the deities to ensure the protection of the winter crops. Watermelons
are traditional symbols of this celebration, all representing the sun. It used to be customary to stay awake Yalda night until sunrise eating, drinking, listening to stories and poems, but this is no longer very common as most people have things to do on the next day.
During the early Roman Empire many Syrian
Christians fled from persecution into the Sassanid Empire
of Persia, introducing the term Yaldā
, meaning birth
, causing Shabe Yaldā
to became synonymous with Shabe Chelle
Sanghamitta Day (Buddhist)
is in honor of the Buddhist
nun who brought a branch of the Bodhi tree
to Sri Lanka
where it has flourished for over 2,000 years.
Originally celebrated by the ancient Greeks as Kronia
, the festival of Chronos
was the feast
at which the Romans
dedication of the temple of Saturn
, which originally took place on 17 December
, but expanded to a whole week, up to 23 December
. A large and important public festival in Rome, it involved the conventional sacrifices, a couch set in front of the temple of Saturn
and the untying of the ropes that bound the statue of Saturn during the rest of the year. Besides the public rites
there were a series of holidays and customs celebrated privately. The celebrations included a school holiday, the making and giving of small presents (saturnalia et sigillaricia
) and a special market (sigillaria
). Gambling was allowed for all, even slaves during this period. The toga
was not worn, but rather the synthesis
, i.e., colorful, informal "dinner clothes" and the pileus
(freedman's hat) was worn by everyone. Slaves were exempt from punishment, and treated their masters with disrespect. The slaves celebrated a banquet before, with, or served by the masters. Saturnalia became one of the most popular Roman festivals
which led to more tomfoolery, marked chiefly by having masters and slaves ostensibly switch places, temporarily reversing the social order. In Greek and Cypriot
folklore it was believed that children born during the festival were in danger of turning into Kallikantzaroi
which come out of the earth after the solstice to cause trouble for mortals. Some would leave colanders
on their doorsteps to distract them until the sun returned.
Şeva Zistanê (Kurdish)
The Night of Winter
(Kurdish: Şeva Zistanê
) is an unofficial holiday celebrated by communities throughout the Kurdistan
region in the Middle East. The night is considered one of the oldest holidays still observed by modern Kurds
and was celebrated by ancient tribes in the region as a holy day. The holiday falls every year on the winter solstice. Since the night is the longest in the year, ancient tribes believed that it was the night before a victory of light over darkness and signified a rebirth of the sun. The sun plays an important role in several ancient religions still practiced by some Kurds in addition to its importance in Zoroastrianism.
In modern times, communities in the Kurdistan region still observe the night as a holiday. Many families prepare large feasts for their communities and the children play games and are given sweets in similar fashion to modern-day Halloween practices.
Sol Invictus Festival (3rd century Roman Empire)
("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus
sun god") was a religious title applied to at least three distinct divinities during the later
; El Gabal
, and Sol
A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun
(or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti
celebrated by the Romans on December 25th. On this, the first day after the six day solar standstill of the winter solstice, the duration of daylight first begins to increase, as the sun once again begins its sunrise movement toward the North, interpreted as the "rebirth" of the sun. With the growing popularity of the Christian cults, Jesus
came to be given much of the recognition previously given to a sun god, thereby including Christ
in the tradition. This was later condemned by the early Catholic Church for associating Christ with pagan
is the winter solstice ceremony of the Zuni
and the Hopitu Shinumu, "The Peaceful Ones," also known as the Hopi
Indians. It is held on December 21
, the shortest day of the year. The main purpose of the ritual is to ceremonially bring the sun back from its long winter slumber. It also marks the beginning of another cycle of the Wheel of the Year, and is a time for purification. Pahos
(prayer sticks) are made prior to the Soyal ceremony, to bless all the community, including their homes, animals, and plants. The kivas
(sacred underground ritual chambers) are ritually opened to mark the beginning of the Kachina season.
Teḳufat Ṭebet (Jewish)
is one of four Tekufot
), solstices and equinoxes
recognized by the Talmudical
writers. Teḳufat Tevet
, the winter solstice, the beginning of winter, or "'et ha-ḥoref" (stripping-time) was when Jephthah
sacrificed his daughter . A long standing superstition is that on any of the Tekufot
, water that was kept in vessels turned poisonous and must be thrown out. Some believed the poisoning could be prevented by placing iron in the water over the Tekufot
. This observation's solemnness is unlike the following holiday, Hanukkah
. This celebration carries much of the 'light' symbolism present in solstice-connected holidays and has become more prominent in western cultures as it has been influenced by Christmas traditions.
' or Uayeb
, referencing the unlucky god N
, were actually five nameless days leading up to the end of the Haab
, the solar Maya calendar
. It was thought to be a dangerous time in which there were no divisions between the mortal and immortal worlds, and deities were free to cause disaster if they willed it. To ward off the spirits, the Maya had a variety of customs they practiced during this period. For example, people avoided leaving their houses or grooming their hair. Calendar Round
rituals would be held at the end of each 52 year round (coincidence of the three Maya calendars), 4 wayeb
to 1 Imix 0 Pop
, with all fires extinguished, old pots broken, and a new fire ceremony symbolizing a fresh start. The next Calendar Round will be on the winter solstice of 2012, beginning a new baktun
. Haab' observations are still held by Maya communities in the highlands of Guatemala
Originally the name Giuli signified a 60 day tide beginning at the lunar midwinter of the late Scandinavian Norse and Germanic tribes. The arrival of Juletid thus came to refer to the midwinter celebrations. By the late Viking Age, the Yule celebrations came to specify a great solstitial Midwinter festival that amalgamated the traditions of various midwinter celebrations across Europe, like Mitwinternacht, Modrasnach, Midvinterblot, and the Teutonic solstice celebration, Feast of the Dead. A documented example of this is in 960, when King Håkon of Norway signed into law that Jul was to be celebrated on the night leading into December 25, to align it with the Christian celebrations. For some Norse sects, Yule logs were lit to honor Thor, the god of thunder. Feasting would continue until the log burned out, three or as many as twelve days. The indigenous lore of the Icelandic Jól continued beyond the Middle Ages, but was condemned when the Reformation arrived. The celebration continues today throughout Northern Europe and elsewhere in name and traditions, for Christians as representative of the nativity of Jesus on the night of December 24th, and for others as a cultural winter celebration on the 24th or for some, the date of the solstice.
- In Germanic Neopagan sects, Yule is celebrated with gatherings that often involve a meal and gift giving. Further attempts at reconstruction of surviving accounts of historical celebrations are often made, a hallmark being variations of the traditional. However it has been pointed out that this is not really reconstruction as these traditions never died out - they have merely removed the Christian elements from the celebration and replaced the event at the solstice.
- The Icelandic Ásatrú and the Asatru Folk Assembly in the US recognize Jól or Yule as lasting for 12 days, beginning on the date of the winter solstice.
- In Wicca, a form of the holiday is observed as one of the eight solar holidays, or Sabbat. In most Wiccan sects, this holiday is celebrated as the rebirth of the Great God, who is viewed as the newborn solstice sun. Although the name Yule has been appropriated from Germanic and Norsk paganism, elements of the celebration itself are of modern origin.
Adapting the Egyptian Osiris Celebrations, the Babylonians
held the annual renewal or new year celebration, the Zagmuk Festival
. It lasted 12 days overlapping the winter solstice or vernal equinox
in its center peak. It was a festival held in observation of the sun god Marduk
's battle over darkness. The Babylonians held both land and river parades
, as Berossus
referred to it, had festivals characterized with a subversion of order leading up to the new year. Masters and slaves interchanged, a mock king was crowned and masquerades
clogged the streets. This has been a suggested precursor to the Festival of Kronos
and possibly Purim
In ancient Latvia
, meaning winter festival
, was celebrated on December 24
as one of the two most important holidays, the other being Jāņi
. Ziemassvētki celebrated the birth of Dievs
, the highest god of Latvian mythology
The two weeks before Ziemassvetki are called Veļu laiks
, the "season of ghosts."
During the festival, candles were lit for Dieviņš
and a fire kept burning until the end, when its extinguishing signaled an end to the unhappiness of the previous year. During the ensuing feast, a space at the table was reserved for Ghousts, who was said to arrive on a sleigh. during the feast, certain foods were always eaten: bread, beans, peas, pork and pig snout and feet. Carolers (Budeļi
) went door to door singing songs and eating from many different houses. The holiday was later adapted by Christians in the middle ages
. It is now celebrated on the 24th, 25th and 26th of December and largely recognized as both a Christian and secular cultural observance. Lithuanians
of the Romuva
religion continue to celebrate a variant of the original polytheistic