2 City (1990 pop. 15,799), seat of Clark co., N central Ky.; inc. 1793. The center of a tobacco, dairying, and livestock area on the edge of the bluegrass country, it has food processing and plants making a variety of manufactures including steel, pharmaceuticals, mining equipment, furniture, paper products, apparel, and feeds. Henry Clay made his last speech in Kentucky in the old courthouse there. Winchester is the headquarters of Cumberland National Forest.
3 Town (1990 pop. 20,267), Middlesex co., E Mass., a suburb of Boston; settled 1640, inc. 1850. It is chiefly residential with some light industry.
4 City (1990 pop. 23,365), seat of Frederick co., N Va., in the Shenandoah valley; settled 1732 near a Native American village in Lord Fairfax's domain, inc. as a city 1874. It is the trade, processing, and shipping center for an apple-growing, grain, livestock, and dairying district. Its products include motor vehicle parts, furniture, plastics, building materials, foods and beverages, lumber, flour, crushed limestone, and clothing.
George Washington began his career as a surveyor there in 1748. During the French and Indian Wars, Winchester was a center for defense against Native American raids, and Washington, who commanded the Virginia troops, had his headquarters there. Gen. Daniel Morgan lived in Winchester and is buried in Mt. Hebron Cemetery. During the Civil War, the city suffered severely, changing hands many times. Stonewall Jackson headquartered there during the winter of 1861-62, and Gen. Philip Sheridan during the winter of 1864-65. Of interest are the old Presbyterian Church (1790) and the Museum of the Shenandoah Valley. Shenandoah Univ. (1875) is there. The city is the birthplace of Willa Cather and Richard E. Byrd.
Winchester Cathedral, the longest cathedral in Europe, was originally built in 1079. It contains much fine architecture spanning the 11th to the 16th century and is the place of interment of numerous Bishops of Winchester (such as William of Wykeham), Anglo-Saxon monarchs (such as Egbert of Wessex) and later monarchs such as King Canute and William Rufus, as well as Jane Austen. It was once an important pilgrimage centre and housed the shrine of Saint Swithun. The ancient Pilgrims' Way travelling to Canterbury begins at Winchester. The plan of the earlier Old Minster is laid out in the grass adjoining the cathedral. The New Minster (original burial place of Alfred the Great and Edward the Elder) once stood beside it. It has a girls choir and a boys choir, which sing on a regular basis at the cathedral.
The earliest hammer-beamed building still standing in England is also situated in the Cathedral Close, next to the Dean's garden. It is known as the Pilgrims' Hall, as it was part of the hostelry used to accommodate the many pilgrims to Saint Swithun's shrine. Left-overs from the lavish banquets of the Dean would be given to the pilgrims who were welcome to spend the night in the hall. It is thought by Winchester City Council to have been built in 1308. The Pilgrims' School is planning to organise some events in the year 2008. Now, the hall is used by the school for assemblies in the morning, drama lessons, plays, orchestral practices, Cathedral Waynflete rehearsals, the school's Senior Commoners' Choir rehearsals and so forth.
Winchester is well known for the Great Hall of its castle, which was built in the 12th century. The Great Hall was rebuilt, sometime between 1222-1235, and still exists in this form. It is famous for King Arthur's Round Table, which has hung in the hall from at least 1463. The table actually dates from the 13th century, and as such is not contemporary to Arthur. Despite this it is still of considerable historical interest and attracts many tourists. The table was originally unpainted, but was painted for King Henry VIII in 1522. The names of the legendary Knights of the Round Table are written around the edge of the table surmounted by King Arthur on his throne. Opposite the table are Prince Charles' 'Wedding Gates'. In the grounds of the Great Hall is a recreation of a medieval garden. Apart from the hall, only a few excavated remains of the stronghold survive amongst the modern Law Courts. The buildings were supplanted by the King's House, now incorporated into the Peninsula Barracks where there are several military museums. Winchester is also home to the Army Training Regiment Winchester, otherwise known as Sir John Moore Barracks, where Army recruits undergo their phase one training.
Although Winchester City survived World War II intact, about thirty percent of the Old Town was demolished by Winchester City Council in the 1950s to make way for modern concrete brutalist structures.
The city may have been the Caergwinntguic or Caergwintwg (literally meaning "White Fortress") as recorded by Nennius after the Roman occupation. This name was corrupted into Wintanceastre following the Anglo-Saxon conquest of the area in 519.
The famous novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. The Romantic poet John Keats stayed in Winchester from mid August through to October 1819. It was in Winchester that Keats wrote "Isabella", "St. Agnes' Eve", "To Autumn" and "Lamia". Parts of "Hyperion" and the five-act poetic tragedy "Otho The Great" were also written in Winchester.
Winchester women also have successful sports teams with Winchester City Women FC currently playing in the Hampshire County League Division 1 and recently went through a league campaign unbeaten. The club caters for players of all ability and ages.
Winchester has a thriving successful Hockey Club (http://www.winchesterhc.co.uk/), with ten men's and three ladies' teams catering to all ages and abilities.
The city has a growing roller hockey team which trains at River Park Leisure Centre.
Lawn bowls is played at several greens (the oldest being Hyde Abbey dating from 1812)during the summer months and at Riverside Indoor Bowling Club during the winter.
There are numerous educational institutions in Winchester.
There are three state secondary schools: Kings' School Winchester, The Westgate School, and The Henry Beaufort School, all of which have excellent reputations. The sixth form Peter Symonds College is the main college that serves Winchester; it is rated amongst the top and the largest sixth form colleges in the UK.
Among privately owned preparatory schools, there are The Pilgrims' School Winchester, Twyford, Prince's Mead etc. Winchester College, which accepts students from ages 13 to 18, is one of the most well-known public schools in Britain and many of its pupils leave for well-respected universities. St Swithuns is a public school for girls which frequently appears on the league tables for GCSE and A-level results.
The University of Winchester (formerly King Alfred's College) is Winchester's university, beginning life as a teacher training college. It is located on a purpose built campus near the city centre. The Winchester School of Art is part of the University of Southampton.
The city of Winchester gave its name to a suburb of Paris, France, called Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (23,724 inhabitants), due to a manor built there by John of Pontoise, Bishop of Winchester, in the end of the 13th century.
The city is also the sister city of Winchester, Virginia. The Mayor of Winchester (UK) has a standing invitation to be a part of the Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival in Winchester (VA) each year in the Spring.
Winchester is home to Winchester Live, a live music festival set up in 2008 as a special event organised by Placid Piranha Promotions aimed at promoting the area of Winchester and Hampshire to the music industry and local music scene. Happening across three venues and boasting 11 gigs in 7 nights, it will be an opportunity to showcase Winchester as a thriving music town with big names in rock ‘n’ roll performing with a wealth of talent that Hampshire has to offer.
Winchester hosts one of the UK's largest and most successful farmers' markets, with close to - or over - 100 stalls, and is certified by FARMA. The farmers' market takes place on the second and last Sunday monthly in the town centre.
On Channel 4 UK's Television Programme "The Best And Worst Places To Live In The UK" 2006, which was broadcast on Channel 4 UK on 26 October 2006, it was officially branded as the Best Place In The UK To Live In: 2006. In the 2007 edition of the same programme, Winchester had dropped to second best place to live, behind Edinburgh.
Winchester is currently represented in the U.K. House of Commons through the Winchester Parliamentary Constituency by Hon. Mark Oaten, M.P., a Liberal Democrat. Mr. Oaten won the seat during the 1997 general election in which he defeated the former Conservative Health Minister Rt. Hon. Gerry Malone M.P. from John Major's then ousted Government.
In the movie Merlin, King Uther's first conquest of Britain begins with Winchester, which Merlin foresaw would fall.
A fictionalised Winchester appears as Wintoncester in Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles and is in part the model for Barchester in the Barsetshire novels of Anthony Trollope, who attended Winchester College; The Warden is said to be based on a scandal at the Hospital of St Cross.
In The TV show, Supernatural, Winchester is used as the last name for the main sibling brother, Sam and Dean Winchester. This show consists of the brothers hunting down demons and evil spirits.
In the Japanese manga Death Note, The Wammy's House, an orphanage founded by Quillsh Wammy, where the detective L's successors are raised, is located in Winchester.
A fictitious estate near Winchester is the scene of a crime in the Sherlock Holmes's adventure, The Problem of Thor Bridge, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, while some of the action in his The Adventure of the Copper Beeches takes place in the city.