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Wigmore

Wigmore

Wigmore, John Henry, 1863-1943, American legal educator, b. San Francisco, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1883; M.A. and LL.B., 1887). He taught (1889-92) Anglo-American law at Keio-Gijuku Univ., Tokyo. After 1893 he was a professor of law at Northwestern Univ.; from 1901 to 1929 he was dean of the law faculty. Wigmore is especially noted for his monumental work usually known as Treatise on Evidence (4 vol., 1904; 3d ed., 10 vol., 1940; suppl. 1964). This work is at the same time a lawyer's manual of practice and an incisive and highly critical survey of the law of evidence. His shorter works on evidence include books usually cited as The Code of Evidence (3d ed. 1942) and Students' Textbook of Evidence (1935). Out of Wigmore's interest in comparative law came his Panorama of the World's Legal Systems (3 vol., 1928; repr., 3 vol. in 1, 1936).

Wigmore is a village and parish in the northwest part of the county of Herefordshire, England. It is located on the A4110 road, about 8 miles west of the town of Ludlow, in the Welsh Marches. In earlier times it was also an administrative district called a hundred.

Origins of the name

Several alternative explanations have been offered for the origin of the village's name, which was originally written Wigingamere and later Wigemore or Wigmore:

  1. From "Wicga's Moor". Wicga may refer to a person or may indicate a specialised term for an unstable marsh in which "blister" bogs appear and disappear.
  2. From the Old English Wicga, meaning a beetle or something which wriggles (as in earwig) and Mōr, meaning marsh. This is believed to refer to the nature of the marsh close by.
  3. From the Welsh Gwig Maur, meaning "Big Wood".

History

Origins

The origins of human habitation in the area of the present village of Wigmore seem to be lost in the mists of time. However, it is known that an early settlement on a hill close by the location of the present village seems to have been called Merestone or Merestun (from the Old English Mersc, meaning mere or marsh and Tūn, meaning enclosure, farmstead, village, manor or estate - thus literally "village by the marsh"). The name of the marsh itself seems to have been applied to the later village.

It should be noted that, although Roman remains have been found in the area (near Bury Farm, to the east) on the western branch of Watling Street (which crosses Wigmore Moor), the town was not sited in relation to the road and thus it probably owes its existence more to the Norman castle on the hill above the church and village.

It is sometimes suggested that Wigmore is associated with Winingamere, a fortification built by king Edward the Elder in 921, but recent research has shown that Winingamere was, in fact, in Newport, Essex.

The Mortimer period

At the time of the reign of Edward the Confessor, the barony of Wigmore belonged to Edric Sylvaticus, the Saxon Earl of Shrewsbury. However, he refused to submit after the Norman conquest and was defeated in battle and taken prisoner. His possessions were subsequently granted to William FitzOsbern, the Earl of Hereford under William I from 1068 to 1072, as a reward for his services.

FitzOsbern built Wigmore Castle, as it became known. Although it was probably initially only built of earth and timber, it was to become one of the main English border castles along the Welsh Marches during the 13th and 14th centuries.

However, FitzOsbern's son Roger de Breteuil took part in the Revolt of the Earls; after the Earl's subsequent defeat William I seized the castle and gave it to another of his supporters, Ranulph de Mortimer. From this time on Wigmore became the head of the barony of the Mortimers, Earls of March.

Wigmore is one of very few Herefordshire boroughs recorded in the Domesday Book. Although Hereford was the only borough in the county in 1066, boroughs were attached to the castles of Clifford (also built by FitzOsbern) and Wigmore by 1086.

Wigmore, at the time situated in the Hazeltree hundred, is mentioned three times in the Domesday Book. The first entry is under the lands held by Ranulph Mortimer and records that he holds Wigmore Castle, which Earl William built on wasteland that was called Merestun, which Gunfrid held before 1066. It also records that there were two hides that paid tax, two ploughs in lordship and four slaves. The borough of Wigmore is recorded to have paid £ 7 - "bergu qd ibi est redd vii lib". Secondly, in the section recording the lands of the king, Merestone is recorded as being a part of the manor of Kingsland which Ranulph Mortimer held for the king. A third section mentions that Ranulph Mortimer holds Wigmore, which Alfward held, and that there is half a hide, which Wigmore Castle is situated upon. If a rental of 12 d per burgage (as was customary with other rental properties at the time), the money paid by the borough may represent about 140 burgages.

Although it is not considered to have been a failed borough, as it was a fairly prosperous small market town during the 13th and early 14th centuries, Wigmore does not seem to have flourished as much as others in the region, such as Bromyard.

There are two 14th-century extents (assessments or valuations of land for taxation purposes) preserved in the Public Record Office which include the settlement. In the one of 1304 it was recorded that there were 102 tenants who held 140 and a quarter burgages. It was also recorded that there was a weekly market and a fair, which was held on the feast of St Andrew.

The importance of Wigmore as a market town was at least partly due to the influence of the Mortimer family and their castle, which probably attracted much local and regional business to the town. However, Wigmore's prosperity probably waned somewhat in the mid-14th century when the Mortimer family moved its administrative centre to Ludlow Castle, which they had inherited through marriage in 1314.

However, Wigmore Castle still remained the family's official seat for the next 250 years, until the demise of their house; when the male line of the Mortimers died out in 1424, the castle passed to the crown. It was maintained throughout the 16th century, partly as a prison, although the castle was already in decay. The town of Wigmore shared the fate of the castle and it declined to village status by the 16th century. The castle was finally dismantled in 1643 to prevent it being garrisoned during the English Civil War.

Later history

Wigmore was one of the first areas in England to have an Enclosure Act. Dating from 1772, this act affected the moor and woods nearby. The dividing earth banks still survive.

In 1870 - 1872 it was recorded in the Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales that Wigmore village was a seat of petty-sessions and that it had a post office, a police station, two Methodist chapels and a national school. Fairs were held on 6 May and 5 August. The parish included part of Limebrook and was in the Ludlow district. The size of the village was , it had a population of 499 and 104 houses. Regarding the Wigmore hundred, it was recorded that it contained 14 parishes and 5 parts. It had a size of , a population of 6,309 and contained 1,234 houses.

The Gazetteer of the British Isles of 1887 showed that the village of Wigmore had not changed much in fifteen years - indeed, the number of inhabitants had declined slightly: contained a population of 417. Similarly, the Wigmore hundred's contained a population of 5,665.

Schools

The village has one primary school and one secondary school which have a catchment area of North Herefordshire although some pupils attend from South Shropshire and from across the border in Wales. The High School is notable as an extremely well-performing comprehensive school nationally. The schools are currently in a consultation period as they prepare to amalgamate to help share resources.

Places of interest

References

  • Archenfield Archaeology
  • Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, 1870-72
  • Littlebury's Directory and Gazetteer of Herefordshire, 1876-77
  • Gazetteer of the British Isles, 1887

External links

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