[hwit-uh-ker, wit-]
Chambers, Whittaker, 1901-61, U.S. journalist and spy, b. Philadelphia. He joined the U.S. Communist party in 1925 and wrote for its newspaper before engaging (1935-38) in espionage for the USSR. He left the party in 1939 and began working for Time magazine. In 1948 he testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, accusing Alger Hiss, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a former State Dept. official, of being a Communist party member. Hiss sued for libel, and Chambers then accused him of having been part of an espionage ring. Chambers, now being promoted by Congressman Richard Nixon, led investigators to his Maryland farm, where he produced from a hollowed-out pumpkin State Dept. documents he alleged Hiss had given him. Hiss was indicted for perjury, and after two trials was found guilty (1950) and imprisoned. The case was extremely controversial, and both men were vehemently attacked and defended.

See Chambers's autobiography, Witness (1952, repr. 1983); A. Cooke, A Generation on Trial (1950, 2d ed. 1952); R. Seth, The Sleeping Truth: The Hiss-Chambers Affair Reappraised (1968); A. Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (1978); S. Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers (1997).

Whittaker, Charles Evans, 1901-73, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1957-62), b. Troy, Kans. He received his law degree from the Univ. of Kansas City in 1924 and practiced law for many years. He served as judge of the U.S. District Court for Western Missouri (1954-56) and on the U.S. Court of Appeals, 8th circuit (1956-57), before appointment by President Eisenhower to the Supreme Court. Upon his retirement in 1962, he was succeeded by Byron R. White.
J.H. Whittaker & Sons, Ltd ('Whittaker's') is a confectionery manufacturer specialising in chocolate, based in Porirua, New Zealand. The company started in Christchurch by James Henry Whittaker in 1896, relocating later to Wellington.


James Henry Whittaker, after working in the British confectionery industry to the age of 14, moved to Christchurch, New Zealand in 1890 and starting selling confectionery six years later using horses and vans.

In 1913, he established a partnership with his two sons, Ronald and James, based in Wellington. The business became a limited liability company in 1937, with third-generation Whittakers still the sole shareholders in the company. In 1992 the company formed J.H. Whittaker Australia Ltd.

The company's marketing phrases include "Good honest chocolate" and "A passion for chocolate since 1896". Nationally, the company supports motor and equestrian sports.


Whittaker's products include:

The products are exported from New Zealand to Australia and Singapore and are also available in some New Zealand shops in the United Kingdom.

External links


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