White

White

[hwahyt, wahyt]
White, Andrew Dickson, 1832-1918, American educator and diplomat, b. Homer, N.Y., briefly attended Geneva (now Hobart) College, grad. Yale, 1853. He studied in France and Germany, served (1854-55) as attaché in St. Petersburg, and toured Europe. While teaching history (1857-63) at the Univ. of Michigan, he developed the idea of a university detached from all sects and parties and free to pursue truth without deference to dogma. After his father died (1860) he returned (1863) to New York a comparatively rich man. He sat (1864-67) in the New York state senate and was chairman of the education committee, which dealt with the founding of a land-grant college. With the financial aid of a fellow senator, Ezra Cornell, the land grant was made available for the institution that became Cornell Univ. White, as first president (1867-85), expanded the institution to teach not only agriculture and mechanical arts but also other fields of knowledge. He was one of the first educators to use the system of free elective studies. As Cornell was nonsectarian, the charge of "godlessness" was made against it. White, a practicing Episcopalian, maintained that freedom was beneficial to religion and wrote his History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896) and Seven Great Statesmen in the Warfare of Humanity with Unreason (1910) to develop his concept of free inquiry. Later White was minister to Germany (1879-81) and to Russia (1892-94). He was also ambassador to Germany (1897-1902) and was chairman of the American delegation to the First Hague Conference (1899). He persuaded Andrew Carnegie to build the Palace of Justice to house the Hague Tribunal.

See his autobiography (1905); study by W. P. Rogers (1942).

White, Bouck, 1874-1951, American clergyman and author, b. Middleburg, N.Y. He was ordained as a Congregational minister in 1904 but was dismissed from his post at Trinity House, Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1913 because of his Call of the Carpenter (1911), which portrayed Jesus as a social agitator. He then founded the Church of the Social Revolution in New York City and soon acquired a reputation as an eccentric radical. He was imprisoned several times for actions connected with his socialistic views. In the 1930s he retired to a mountain retreat in Voorheesville, N.Y.
White, Byron Raymond, 1917-2002, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1962-93), b. Fort Collins, Colo. An All-America football player nicknamed "Whizzer" who later starred as a professional, White was also a member of Phi Beta Kappa at the Univ. of Colorado, from which he graduated as valedictorian in 1938. He then went to Oxford as a Rhodes scholar (1939-40), and received his law degree at Yale in 1946 after serving in the navy in World War II. White served (1946-47) as law clerk for Chief Justice Frederick Vinson before going to Denver to practice corporate law. He supported John F. Kennedy for the presidency in 1960, and was appointed deputy attorney general in 1961. In 1962, Kennedy named him to succeed Charles E. Whittaker on the Supreme Court. After President Nixon's conservative appointments to the court, White became known as a "swing" justice, generally voting with the liberals on civil-rights cases, but with the conservatives on personal liberty and criminal-justice issues. He was one of two justices to dissent from the Roe v. Wade (1973) abortion decision, and in Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) he wrote a decision that upheld Georgia's sodomy statutes. White retired from the Court in 1993.

See D. J. Hutchinson, The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White (1998).

White, Clarence Cameron, 1880-1960, American composer and violinist, b. Clarksville, Tenn., studied at the Oberlin Conservatory and in Europe. In addition to activities as violinist and teacher in Boston (1912-23) and New York City, he was director of music at West Virginia State College (1924-30) and at Hampton Institute (1932-35). His compositions for the violin include Bandanna Sketches and arrangements of spirituals, and he also wrote an opera Ouanga (1932), based on Haitian history.
White, E. B. (Elwyn Brooks White), 1899-1985, American writer, b. Mt. Vernon, N.Y., grad. Cornell, 1921. A witty, satiric observer of contemporary society, White was a member of the staff of the early New Yorker; some of his "Talk of the Town" columns were collected in The Wild Flag (1946). In addition to this work and much light, graceful, and humorous verse, he wrote Is Sex Necessary? (with James Thurber, 1929), Quo Vadimus? (1939), One Man's Meat (1942), Here Is New York (1949), and The Points of My Compass (1962). He also penned three delightful stories for children, Stuart Little (1945), Charlotte's Web (1952), and The Trumpet of the Swan (1970). A superb literary stylist himself, White undertook a noted revision of The Elements of Style (1959) by William Strunk, Jr., and with his wife, Katherine, he edited A Subtreasury of American Humor (1941).

See his selected essays (1977); letters, ed. by D. L. Guth (1976, 1989; rev. ed. also ed. by M. White, 2007); biography by S. Elledge (1984); study by E. C. Sampson (1974).

White, Edmund (Edmund Valentine White 3d), 1940-, American writer, b. Cincinnati, grad. Univ. of Michigan (B.A., 1962). White is one of the best known—and probably the finest stylist—of the openly gay writers who came to public attention in the 1970s and 80s. His first novel, Forgetting Elena (1973), the tale of a young amnesiac's struggle to reassemble his life, was highly stylized and linguistically inventive, as was Nocturnes for the King of Naples (1978). His later works concentrate on the struggles, pleasures, and political stances of members of contemporary America's middle-class male homosexual community. These themes are evident in a semiautobiographical trilogy of novels tracing the protagonist's realization of his sexuality and coming of age (A Boy's Own Story, 1982), his troubled young manhood and political awakening (The Beautiful Room Is Empty, 1988), and his middle age in an AIDS-ravaged city (The Farewell Symphony, 1997). Among White's other works are the novels The Married Man (2000), Fanny (2003), and Hotel de Dream (2007) and short stories, e.g., those in Skinned Alive (1995). His nonfiction includes The Joy of Gay Sex (coauthor, 1977), States of Desire: Travels in Gay America (1980), a monumental biography of Jean Genet (1993), short biographies of Proust (1999) and Rimbaud (2008), and a study of Paris entitled The Flâneur (2001).

See his autobiography, My Lives (2006) and his memoir, City Boy (2009); biography by S. Barber (1999).

White, Edward Douglass, 1845-1921, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1894-1910), ninth Chief Justice of the United States (1910-21), b. Lafourche parish, La. He attended the Jesuit College in New Orleans and Georgetown College (now Georgetown Univ.), Washington, D.C. After service in the Confederate army he practiced law. White became (1879) judge of the Louisiana supreme court and served (1891-94) in the U.S. Senate until he was appointed (1894) Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by President Cleveland. Made Chief Justice by President Taft, White—the first Southerner since Roger Taney to head the Supreme Court—was generally a conservative on the bench. He wrote the "rule of reason" decisions, which differentiated between legal and illegal business combinations, in the antitrust cases against the American Tobacco Company and the Standard Oil Company in 1911. In 1916 he wrote the decision upholding the constitutionality of the Adamson Act, which established an eight-hour day for railroad workers.

See biographies by M. C. C. Klinkhamer (1943) and G. Hagemann (1962).

White, Edward Higgins, 2d, 1930-67, American astronaut, b. San Antonio. While serving as pilot of Gemini 4 (June 3-7, 1965), he became the first American to perform extravehicular activity. He had been selected to be command-module pilot for the first manned Apollo flight, but was killed with crewmates Virgil "Gus" Grissom and Roger Chaffee on Jan. 27, 1967, when a fire occurred in the space capsule during a preflight ground test.
White, Elijah, 1806-79, American missionary in the Oregon country. A physician, he left Boston in 1836 to join the Methodist mission established by Jason Lee. After friction with his associates, he left in 1840. His fame rests on the fact that, returning overland to Oregon with an appointment as an Indian agent in 1842, he led the first large party of settlers (more than 100) to Oregon.
White, Ellen Gould (Harmon), 1827-1915, leader of the Seventh-day Adventists, b. Gorham, Maine. Converted at the age of 15 to the beliefs of the Adventists, she began to receive visions accepted as prophetic by many members of that sect. In 1846, she married James White, a minister of Adventist convictions with whom she founded the Seventh-day Adventists. After her husband's death in 1881, she traveled widely as a missionary. By the time she died, the Seventh-day Adventist movement had grown from a few adherents to a worldwide congregation of over 130,000 members. The church carried out her ideas long after she died, including her activism and charismatic preaching. Her voluminous writings are the primary source of church doctrines. The church had over 5 million members worldwide during the late 1980s. Her numerous writings include The Ministry of Healing (1942) and The Desire of Ages (1944).

See biography by R. E. Graham (1985).

White, Sir George Stuart, 1835-1912, British field marshal. He first achieved distinction in the Afghan War of 1878-80. In Myanmar (1885-87), where he was knighted in 1886, in Baluchistan (1889-93), and later as commander in chief in India (1893-98), he was an instrument of Great Britain's "forward" policy of combating any Russian advance toward India by aggressive campaigns, military and diplomatic, in the borderlands. His greatest fame came in the South African War when he defended Ladysmith against a 118-day siege by the Boers (1899-1900). He became governor of Gibraltar (1900-1904) and was made field marshal in 1903.
White, Gilbert, 1720-93, English naturalist. He served as curate at Selborne and nearby parishes from 1751. He recorded his detailed observations of nature in letters to other naturalists, and on these he based The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne (1789), a classic in scientific writing noted for its highly literary style.
White, Henry, 1850-1927, American diplomat, b. Baltimore. He studied abroad and traveled widely. White—often called the first career diplomat in the United States—entered the foreign service as secretary (1883-84) of the U.S. legation in Vienna. He served (1884-93) with the U.S. embassy at London, and in 1896 President McKinley appointed him secretary of the embassy. He later was ambassador at Rome (1905-7) and at Paris (1907-9); as head of the U.S. delegation to the Algeciras Conference (1906), White helped in the settlement of the Moroccan Crisis between Germany and France. He was sent (1910) as a special emissary to Chile and in 1918 was appointed a commissioner to the Paris Peace Conference by President Wilson.

See biography by A. Nevins (1930).

White, Hugh Lawson, 1773-1840, American political leader, b. Iredell co., N.C. He moved (1787) to what is now E Tennessee and served in the wars against the Creek and Cherokee. He was (1793) secretary to Gov. William Blount, studied law in Lancaster, Ohio, and began (1796) practice in Knoxville, Tenn. He held various judicial offices in Tennessee and was a state senator (1807-9, 1817-25) before becoming a U.S. Senator in 1825. A supporter of Andrew Jackson and his policies, he split with the President when Jackson backed Martin Van Buren for President. White, in protest, ran (1836) for the presidency as a Whig party candidate and secured the electoral votes of Tennessee and Georgia. He resigned (1840) from the U.S. Senate after he fought, in opposition to the instructions of the Tennessee legislature, Van Buren's plan for the Independent Treasury System.
White, John, 1575-1648, English colonizer. An Anglican priest of moderate Puritan belief, White wished to establish a colony for Puritans. He helped form (1628) the New England Company, which later became (1629) the Massachusetts Bay Company, but he himself never went to America.

See biography by F. Rose-Troup (1930).

White, John, fl. 1585-93, artist, cartographer, and Virginia pioneer, b. probably in England. In 1585 he was commissioned to go with the expedition to Roanoke Island to depict life in the New World. His paintings provide some of the earliest and most valuable source materials on the natural history of the North American continent. It is believed, though by no means proved, that he is the same John White whom Sir Walter Raleigh appointed governor of the second Roanoke colony in 1587.
White, Leslie Alvin, 1900-1975, American anthropologist, b. Salida, Colo., grad. Columbia, 1923, Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1927. He taught at the Univ. of Buffalo and was curator of anthropology at the Buffalo Museum of Science from 1927 to 1930. In 1930 he joined the faculty of the Univ. of Michigan, where he became professor of anthropology in 1943. While retaining his post at Michigan, White served as visiting professor at many other universities. His earlier years were devoted largely to research among the Pueblos which resulted in a number of monographs, such as The Acoma Indians (1932), The Pueblo of San Felipe (1932), and The Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico (1942). In later years he wrote on the subject of cultural evolution, emphasizing that this progressed as a result of technological advances which gave humans control over ever-increasing quantities of energy. His major works are The Science of Culture (1949) and The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome (1959).
White, Patrick, 1912-90, Australian novelist, b. London. Raised in England, he returned to Australia after World War II, earning his living by farming and writing. His novels—often set in the Australian outback—usually portray the suffering of extraordinary people. His style relies heavily on description. His novels include The Happy Valley (1939), The Aunt's Story (1948), The Tree of Man (1955), Riders in the Chariot (1961), The Vivisector (1970), The Eye of the Storm (1974), The Twyborn Affair (1980), and Memoirs of Many in One by Xenophon Demirjian Gray (1986). The Cockatoos (1975) is a collection of short stories. In 1973, White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

See his autobiography Flaws in the Glass (1981); biography by D. Marr (1992); studies by G. Laigle (1989), L. Steven (1989), and P. Wolfe (1990).

White, Peregrine, 1620-1704, first child born to English parents in New England. He was born on the Mayflower as she lay at anchor in Cape Cod Bay on Nov. 20. He became a citizen of Marshfield, Mass., and held minor offices.
White, Richard Grant, 1821-85, American journalist, writer, and Shakespearean scholar, b. New York City. He had a varied career and was at different times music critic and coeditor (1851-59) of the New York Courier and Enquirer, a founder and editor (1860-61) of the World, and chief clerk in the New York Customs House (1861-78). In 1853 he published a series of articles in Putnam's Magazine that exposed as fraudulent the marginalia that John Payne Collier had discovered on certain Shakespearean manuscripts. White's own annotated 12-volume edition of Shakespeare appeared from 1857 to 1866 and was republished, in three volumes, as The Riverside Shakespeare in 1883. His other works include a Handbook of Christian Art (1853) and two dogmatic manuals of English usage—Words and Their Uses (1872) and Every-Day English (1880).
White, Stanford, 1853-1906, American architect, b. New York City; son of Richard Grant White. In 1872 he entered the office of Gambrill and Richardson in Boston, at the time when H. H. Richardson was at the peak of his fame. There White worked upon the design for Trinity Church, Boston. After studying in Europe, he entered (1879) into partnership with C. F. McKim and W. R. Mead, a firm that was to affect the course of American architecture over a long period. White had a passionate love of beauty; his special talents were for the decorative elements of a building and for its interior design and furnishing. He also possessed a wide knowledge of antiques. Among the buildings executed by the firm, those that are commonly ascribed as his individual accomplishments include the second Madison Square Garden, Madison Square Presbyterian Church, the New York Herald Building, Washington Arch, and the Century Club, all in New York City; only the last two still stand. These buildings illustrated his characteristic concentration upon rich and graceful effects and especially upon beautifully sculptured Renaissance ornament. White was shot and killed in Madison Square Roof Garden by Harry K. Thaw because of his love affair with Thaw's wife, Evelyn Nesbit Thaw. After his death the firm continued to design buildings in his style that later were erroneously attributed to White himself, e.g., the Harvard Club, New York City.

See biography by C. C. Baldwin (1931, repr. 1971); P. Baker, Stanny (1990).

White, Stewart Edward, 1873-1946, American author, b. Grand Rapids, Mich., grad. Univ. of Michigan, 1895. The stories collected in The Claim Jumpers (1901) and The Blazed Trail (1902) reflect his own adventures in the Black Hills gold rush and in a Michigan lumber camp, respectively. His ambitious trilogy, The Story of California (1927), consists of three historical novels, Gold (1913), The Gray Dawn (1915), and The Rose Dawn (1920). In addition to books for children he wrote accounts of his own life in Dog Days (1930) and Speaking for Myself (1943).
White, T. H. (Terence Hanbury White), 1906-64, British author, b. Bombay (now Mumbai), India. His best-known work, the tetralogy The Once and Future King (1939-58), is a dramatic and delightfully idiosyncratic retelling of the story of King Arthur and his knights. An authority on medieval life and legend, T. H. White was also the author of The Goshawk (1951), a book on falconry, and A Book of Beasts (1954), an annotated translation of a 12th-century Latin bestiary.

See biography by S. T. Warner (1968); study by J. Crane (1974).

White, Theodore H., 1915-86, Americal political journalist, b. Boston. After freelancing for the Boston Globe and the Manchester Guardian, he was recruited by John Hersey to cover East Asia for Time magazine, becoming chief of its China bureau (1945). A year later he resigned in a dispute with editor Henry Luce. His The Making of the President, 1960 (1961), the first in a series of books covering presidential campaigns in an astute, dramatic reportorial style, won him the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for general nonfiction. His other books include Breach of Faith (1975), In Search of History (1978), and America in Search of Itself (1982).
White, Walter Francis, 1893-1955, American civil-rights leader, b. Atlanta, Ga., grad. Atlanta Univ., 1916. From 1931 until his death he was secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and tirelessly fought against racial discrimination and violence in the United States. He served on several government commissions. White's defense of African-American rights is vividly recorded in his autobiography, A Man Called White (1948). His works include Fire in the Flint (1924), Flight (1926), Rope and Faggot (1929), Rising Wind (1945), and How Far the Promised Land (published posthumously in 1955).

See biography by P. Cannon (Mrs. W. White), Gentle Knight (1956).

White, William Allen, 1868-1944, American author, b. Emporia, Kans., studied (1886-90) at Kansas State Univ. As owner and editor of the Emporia Gazette from 1895 until his death, he represented grass roots political opinion throughout the nation. In 1896 his famous editorial, "What's the Matter with Kansas?," attacked the Populists and helped elect McKinley, the Republican candidate. A spokesman for small town life and a liberal Republican, White feared the results of excessive industrialization. His fiction reflects his social and political views. In 1923. he won a Pulitzer Prize for his editorials. His writings include short stories, the novel A Certain Rich Man (1909), a biography of Woodrow Wilson (1924), two biographies of Calvin Coolidge (1925, 1938), and two collections of his newspaper writings, The Editor and His People (1924) and Forty Years on Main Street (1937).

See his autobiography (1946; Pulitzer Prize) and selected letters (ed. by W. Johnson, 1947).

White, William Hale, pseud. Mark Rutherford, 1831-1913, English novelist. He studied to become a clergyman, but instead became (1854) a clerk in the admiralty, rising in 1879 to assistant director of naval contracts. The son of a dissenter, White gives in his novels a poignant account of his spiritual dissillusionment and growing loneliness. His best-known works are The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford (1881), Mark Rutherford's Deliverance (1885), and The Revolution in Tanner's Lane (1887).
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