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In mathematics, Weierstrass's elliptic functions are elliptic functions that take a particularly simple form (cf Jacobi's elliptic functions); they are named for Karl Weierstrass. This class of functions are also referred to as P-functions and generally written using the symbol $wp$ (a stylised letter p called Weierstrass p).
## Definitions

## Invariants

### Special cases

## Differential equation

With this notation, the $wp$ function satisfies the following differential equation:
## Integral equation

The Weierstrass elliptic function can be given as the inverse of an elliptic integral. Let ## Modular discriminant

## The constants e_{1}, e_{2} and e_{3}

## Addition theorems

## The case with 1 a basic half-period

## General theory

## Relation to Jacobi elliptic functions

## References

## External links

The Weierstrass elliptic function can be defined in three closely related ways, each of which possesses certain advantages. One is as a function of a complex variable $z$ and a lattice $Lambda$ in the complex plane. Another is in terms of $z$ and two complex numbers $omega\_1$ and $omega\_2$ defining a pair of generators, or periods, for the lattice. The third is in terms $z$ and of a modulus $tau$ in the upper half-plane. This is related to the previous definition by $tau\; =\; omega\_2/omega\_1$, which by the conventional choice on the pair of periods is in the upper half-plane. Using this approach, for fixed $z$ the Weierstrass functions become modular functions of $tau$.

In terms of the two periods, Weierstrass's elliptic function is an elliptic function with periods $omega\_1$ and $omega\_2$ defined as

- $$

Then $Lambda=momega\_1+nomega\_2$ are the points of the period lattice, so that

- $wp(z;Lambda)=wp(z;omega\_1,omega\_2)$

for any pair of generators of the lattice defines the Weierstrass function as a function of a complex variable and a lattice.

If $tau$ is a complex number in the upper half-plane, then

- $wp(z;tau)\; =\; wp(z;1,tau)\; =frac\{1\}\{z^2\}\; +\; sum\_\{n^2+m^2\; ne\; 0\}\{1\; over\; (z-n-mtau)^2\}\; -\; \{1\; over\; (n+mtau)^2\}.$

The above sum is homogeneous of degree minus two, from which we may define the Weierstrass $wp$ function for any pair of periods, as

- $wp(z;omega\_1,omega\_2)\; =\; wp(z/omega\_1;\; omega\_2/omega\_1)/omega\_1^2.$

We may compute $wp$ very rapidly in terms of theta functions; because these converge so quickly, this is a more expeditious way of computing $wp$ than the series we used to define it. The formula here is

- $wp(z;\; tau)\; =\; pi^2\; vartheta^2(0;tau)\; vartheta\_\{10\}^2(0;tau)\{vartheta\_\{01\}^2(z;tau)\; over\; vartheta\_\{11\}^2(z;tau)\}\; +\; e\_2(tau)$

where

- $e\_2(tau)\; =\; -\{pi^2\; over\; \{3\}\}(vartheta^4(0;tau)\; +\; vartheta\_\{10\}^4(0;tau)).$

There is a second order pole at each point of the period lattice (including the origin). With these definitions, $wp(z)$ is an even function and its derivative with respect to $z$, $wp\text{'}$, an odd function.

Further development of the theory of elliptic functions shows that the condition on Weierstrass's function (correctly called pe) is determined up to addition of a constant and multiplication by a non-zero constant by the condition on the poles alone, amongst all meromorphic functions with the given period lattice.

If points close to the origin are considered the appropriate Laurent series is

- $$

where

- $g\_2=\; 60sum\{\}\text{'}\; Omega\_\{m,n\}^\{-4\},qquad$

(here $Omega\_\{m,n\}=momega\_1+nomega\_2$ and a dashed summation refers to summation over all pairs of integers except $m=n=0$). The numbers $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ are known as the invariants — they are two terms out of the Eisenstein series. (Abramowitz and Stegun restrict themselves to the case of real $g\_2$ and $g\_3$, stating that this case "seems to cover most applications"; this may be true from the point of view of applied mathematics. If $omega\_1$ is real and $omega\_2$ pure imaginary, or if $omega\_1=overline\{omega\_2\}$, the invariants are real).

Note that $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ are homogeneous functions of degree -4 and -6; that is,

- $g\_2(lambda\; omega\_1,\; lambda\; omega\_2)\; =\; lambda^\{-4\}\; g\_2(omega\_1,\; omega\_2)$

and

- $g\_3(lambda\; omega\_1,\; lambda\; omega\_2)\; =\; lambda^\{-6\}\; g\_3(omega\_1,\; omega\_2).$

Thus, by convention, one frequently writes $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ in terms of the half-period ratio $tau=omega\_2/omega\_1$ and take $tau$ to lie in the upper half-plane. Thus, $g\_2(tau)=g\_2(1,\; omega\_2/omega\_1)$ and $g\_3(tau)=g\_3(1,\; omega\_2/omega\_1)$.

The Fourier series for $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ can be written in terms of the square of the nome $q=exp(ipitau)$ as

- $g\_2(tau)=frac\{4pi^4\}\{3\}\; left[1+\; 240sum\_\{k=1\}^infty\; sigma\_3(k)\; q^\{2k\}\; right]$

and

- $g\_3(tau)=frac\{8pi^6\}\{27\}\; left[1-\; 504sum\_\{k=1\}^infty\; sigma\_5(k)\; q^\{2k\}\; right]$

where $sigma\_a(k)$ is the divisor function. This formula may be re-written in terms of Lambert series.

The invariants may be expressed in terms of Jacobi's theta functions. This method is very convenient for numerical calculation: the theta functions converge very quickly. In the notation of Abramowitz and Stegun, but denoting the primitive half-periods by $omega\_1,omega\_2$, the invariants satisfy

- $$

theta_2(0,q)^8-theta_3(0,q)^4theta_2(0,q)^4+theta_3(0,q)^8right) and

- $$

- $left.\; -$

theta_2(0,q)^4theta_3(0,q)^4right]

where $tau=omega\_2/omega\_1$ is the half-period ratio and $q=e^\{pi\; itau\}$ is the nome.

If the invariants are $g\_2=0$, $g\_3=1$, then this is known as the equianharmonic case; $g\_2=1$, $g\_3=0$ is the lemniscatic case.

- $$

- $u\; =\; int\_y^infty\; frac\; \{ds\}\; \{sqrt\{4s^3\; -\; g\_2s\; -g\_3\}\}.$

Here, g_{2} and g_{3} are taken as constants. Then one has

- $y=wp(u).$

The above follows directly by integrating the differential equation.

The modular discriminant $Delta$ is defined as

- $$

This is studied in its own right, as a cusp form, in modular form theory (that is, as a function of the period lattice).

Note that $Delta=(2pi)^\{12\}eta^\{24\}$ where $eta$ is the Dedekind eta function.

The discriminant is a modular form of weight 12. That is, under the action of the modular group, it transforms as

- $Delta\; left(frac\; \{atau+b\}\; \{ctau+d\}right)\; =$

with τ being the half-period ratio, and a,b,c and d being integers, with ad − bc = 1.

Consider the cubic polynomial equation $4t^3-g\_2t-g\_3=0$ with roots $e\_1$, $e\_2$, and $e\_3$. If the discriminant $Delta\; =\; g\_\{2\}^\{3\}\; -\; 27\; g\_\{3\}^\{2\}$ is not zero, no two of these roots are equal. Since the quadratic term of this cubic polynomial is zero, the roots are related by the equation

- $$

The linear and constant coefficients (g_{2} and g_{3}, respectively) are related to the roots by the equations

- $$

- $$

In the case of real invariants, the sign of $Delta$ determines the nature of the roots. If $Delta>0$, all three are real and it is conventional to name them so that $e\_1>e\_2>e\_3$. If $Delta<0$, it is conventional to write $e\_1=-alpha+beta\; i$ (where $alphageq\; 0$, $beta>0$), whence $e\_3=overline\{e\_1\}$ and $e\_2$ is real and non-negative.

The half-periods ω_{1} and ω_{2} of Weierstrass' elliptic function are related to the roots

- $$

If $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ are real and $Delta>0$, the $e\_i$ are all real, and $wp()$ is real on the perimeter of the rectangle with corners $0$, $omega\_3$, $omega\_1+omega\_3$, and $omega\_1$. If the roots are ordered as above ($e\_\{1\}\; >\; e\_\{2\}\; >\; e\_\{3\}$), then the first half-period is completely real

- $$

whereas the third half-period is completely imaginary

- $$

The Weierstrass elliptic functions have several properties that may be proved:

- $$

(a symmetrical version would be

- $$

Also

- $$

and the duplication formula

- $$

If $omega\_1=1$, much of the above theory becomes simpler; it is then conventional to write $tau$ for $omega\_2$. For a fixed τ in the upper half-plane, so that the imaginary part of τ is positive, we define the Weierstrass $wp$ function by

- $wp(z;tau)\; =frac\{1\}\{z^2\}\; +\; sum\_\{n^2+m^2\; ne\; 0\}\{1\; over\; (z-n-mtau)^2\}\; -\; \{1\; over\; (n+mtau)^2\}.$

The sum extends over the lattice {n+mτ : n and m in Z} with the origin omitted. Here we regard τ as fixed and $wp$ as a function of $z$; fixing $z$ and letting τ vary leads into the area of elliptic modular functions.

$wp$ is a meromorphic function in the complex plane with a double pole at each lattice points. It is doubly periodic with periods 1 and τ; this means that $wp$ satisfies

- $wp(z+1)\; =\; wp(z+tau)\; =\; wp(z)$

The above sum is homogeneous of degree minus two, and if $c$ is any non-zero complex number,

- $wp(cz;ctau)\; =\; wp(z;tau)/c^2$

from which we may define the Weierstrass $wp$ function for any pair of periods. We also may take the derivative (of course, with respect to z) and obtain a function algebraically related to $wp$ by

- $wp\text{'}^2\; =\; wp^3\; -\; g\_2\; wp\; -\; g\_3$

where $g\_2$ and $g\_3$ depend only on τ, being modular forms. The equation

- $Y^2\; =\; X^3\; -\; g\_2\; X\; -\; g\_3$

defines an elliptic curve, and we see that $(wp,\; wp\text{'})$ is a parametrization of that curve.

The totality of meromorphic doubly periodic functions with given periods defines an algebraic function field, associated to that curve. It can be shown that this field is

- $Bbb\{C\}(wp,\; wp\text{'}),$

so that all such functions are rational functions in the Weierstrass function and its derivative.

We can also wrap a single period parallelogram into a torus, or donut-shaped Riemann surface, and regard the elliptic functions associated to a given pair of periods to be functions defined on that Riemann surface.

The roots $e\_1$, $e\_2$, and $e\_3$ of the equation $X^3\; -\; g\_2\; X\; -\; g\_3$ depend on τ and can be expressed in terms of theta functions; we have

- $e\_1(tau)\; =\; \{pi^2\; over\; \{3\}\}(vartheta^4(0;tau)\; +\; vartheta\_\{01\}^4(0;tau)),$

- $e\_2(tau)\; =\; -\{pi^2\; over\; \{3\}\}(vartheta^4(0;tau)\; +\; vartheta\_\{10\}^4(0;tau)),$

- $e\_3(tau)\; =\; \{pi^2\; over\; \{3\}\}(vartheta\_\{10\}^4(0;tau)\; -\; vartheta\_\{01\}^4(0;tau)).$

Since $g\_2\; =\; -4(e\_1e\_2+e\_2e\_3+e\_3e\_1)$ and $g\_3\; =\; 4e\_1e\_2e\_3$ we have these in terms of theta functions also.

We may also express $wp$ in terms of theta functions; because these converge very rapidly, this is a more expeditious way of computing $wp$ than the series we used to define it.

- $wp(z;\; tau)\; =\; pi^2\; vartheta^2(0;tau)\; vartheta\_\{10\}^2(0;tau)\{vartheta\_\{01\}^2(z;tau)\; over\; vartheta\_\{11\}^2(z;tau)\}\; +\; e\_2(tau).$

The function $wp$ has two zeroes (modulo periods) and the function $wp\text{'}$ has three. The zeroes of $wp\text{'}$ are easy to find: since $wp\text{'}$ is an odd function they must be at the half-period points. On the other hand it is very difficult to express the zeroes of $wp$ by closed formula, except for special values of the modulus (e.g. when the period lattice is the Gaussian integers). An expression was found, by Zagier and Eichler.

The Weierstrass theory also includes the Weierstrass zeta function, which is an indefinite integral of $wp$ and not doubly-periodic, and a theta function called the Weierstrass sigma function, of which his zeta-function is the log-derivative. The sigma-function has zeroes at all the period points (only), and can be expressed in terms of Jacobi's functions. This gives one way to convert between Weierstrass and Jacobi notations.

The Weierstrass sigma-function is an entire function; it played the role of 'typical' function in a theory of random entire functions of J. E. Littlewood.

For numerical work, it is often convenient to calculate the Weierstrass elliptic function in terms of the Jacobi's elliptic functions. The basic relations are

- $$

where e_{1-3} are the three roots described above and where the modulus k of the Jacobi functions equals

- $$

and their argument w equals

- $$

- Naum Illyich Akhiezer, Elements of the Theory of Elliptic Functions, (1970) Moscow, translated into English as AMS Translations of Mathematical Monographs Volume 79 (1990) AMS, Rhode Island ISBN 0-8218-4532-2
- Tom M. Apostol, Modular Functions and Dirichlet Series in Number Theory, Second Edition (1990), Springer, New York ISBN 0-387-97127-0 (See chapter 1.)
- K. Chandrasekharan, Elliptic functions (1980), Springer-Verlag ISBN 0-387-15295-4
- Serge Lang, Elliptic Functions (1973), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-04162-6
- E. T. Whittaker and G. N. Watson, A course of modern analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1952, chapters 20 and 21
- Konrad Knopp, Funktionentheorie II (1947), Dover; Republished in English translation as Theory of Functions (1996), Dover ISBN 0-486-69219-1
- Abramowitz and Stegun, chapter 18

- Weierstrass's elliptic functions on Mathworld
- Elliptic functions, Hans Lundmark's Complex analysis page

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Friday May 30, 2008 at 14:46:00 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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