[web-er, vey-ber]
Weber, Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von, 1786-1826, German composer and pianist; pupil of Michael Haydn and Abbé Vogler. He made his debut as a pianist at 13 and began to compose at about the same time. Weber enjoyed favor at court and became musical director and conductor of opera at Breslau (1804-6), Prague (1813-16), and Dresden (1816-26). He is considered the founder of German romantic opera, combining in his works strong nationalistic emotion with supernatural elements from German folklore. Of his 10 operas, Der Freischütz [the marksman] (1821) and Oberon (1826) were influential and continue to be performed. Euryanthe (1823) is without spoken dialogue and is thus a landmark in opera history. Weber's instrumental works, including Invitation to the Dance (1819), for piano, and the Concertstück (1821), for piano and orchestra, emphasize virtuoso technique. Nearly all of his nonoperatic works, including three Masses, incidental dramatic music, and many songs, have disappeared from the concert repertoire.

See biographies by his son Max Maria von Weber (2 vol., 1965, repr. 1969), J. Warrack (1968), and W. Saunders (2d ed. 1969).

Weber, Ernst Heinrich, 1795-1878, German physiologist. He was a professor at the Univ. of Leipzig (1821-71) and is known for his work on touch and for the formulation of Weber's law—that the increase in stimulus necessary to produce an increase in sensation is not fixed but depends on the strength of the preceding stimulus. With his brother Eduard Friedrich Weber, 1806-71, he discovered the inhibitory power of the vagus nerve (1845). With another brother, W. E. Weber, he made studies of acoustics and wave motion.
Weber, Joe: see Weber and Fields.
Weber, Max, 1864-1920, German sociologist, economist, and political scientist. At various times he taught at Berlin, Freiburg, Munich, and Heidelberg. One of Weber's chief interests was in developing a methodology for social science, and his works had a considerable influence on 20th-century social scientists. As a technique of sociological analysis, he devised the concept of "ideal types," generalized models of historical situations that could be used as a basis for comparing societies. He opposed the orthodox Marxian view of the time that economics was the preeminent determining factor in social causation and instead stressed the plurality and interdependence of causes. Weber emphasized the role of religious values, ideologies, and charismatic leaders in shaping societies. In his Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1920, tr. 1930) he developed a thesis concerning the intimate connection between the ascetic ideal fostered by Calvinism and the rise of capitalist institutions. A keen observer of politics in his own time, he first admired, then repudiated Otto von Bismarck, and he later advocated for Germany a democratic form of government somewhat on the American model. He has also been influential in using statistical sociology in the study of economic policy. Among his other books are Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft [economy and society] (4th ed. 1956) and General Economic History (1924, tr. 1927).

See From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (with a biography and appraisal by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, 1946); studies by J. Freund (1968), A. Mitzman (1969), W. G. Runciman (1972), D. Beetham (1974), W. J. Mommsen (1974), G. Roth (1979), and J. Alexander (1983).

Weber, Max, 1881-1961, American painter, b. Russia. At 10 he accompanied his family to Brooklyn, N.Y. He studied art at Pratt Institute and in 1905 went abroad. In Paris he studied under J. P. Laurens, later visiting Spain and Italy and returning to New York in 1909. Weber's work in the following decade was fauvist and then cubist inspired. Characteristic of the latter trend is his well-known Chinese Restaurant (Whitney Mus., New York City). He began to introduce Jewish subjects into his work c.1917. During the 1920s, Weber alternated painting with teaching. Contemporary and social themes were his subjects in the 1930s, when his work became increasingly abstract and revealed a new energetic use of line. Weber is represented in leading galleries throughout the United States. He wrote several essays on art theory.

See study by L. Goodrich (1949).

Weber, Wilhelm Eduard, 1804-91, German physicist. He was professor (1831-37, 1849-91) at the Univ. of Göttingen, where he worked with C. F. Gauss on terrestrial magnetism and devised an electromagnetic telegraph. He introduced the absolute system of electrical units. The coulomb was once known as the weber; now the weber is a magnetic unit. With a brother, E. H. Weber, he wrote (1825) a book on wave motion; with another brother, E. F. Weber, he made a study of walking.
weber [for W. E. Weber], abbr. Wb, unit of magnetic flux in the mks system of weights and measures; 1 Wb is equal to 1 volt-second. The weber per square meter, called the tesla [for Nikola Tesla], abbr. T, is the unit of magnetic flux density, which is a measure of the strength of a magnetic field in a given region. See electric and magnetic units.
''This page is about the surname. Below, there is list of people bearing this name and other uses of the word.
Weber is a surname of German origin, derived from the noun meaning "weaver". The German pronunciation is "ˈveˌbɐ", while in English it is more likely to be pronounced "" or "/ˈweɪbɚ/". In some cases, following migration to English-speaking countries, it has been anglicised to the English surname 'Webber' or even 'Weaver'.



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