Weave

twill

[twil]

One of the three basic textile weaves (see weaving), distinguished by diagonal lines. In the simplest twill, the weft crosses over two warp yarns, then under one, the sequence being repeated in each succeeding shot (row), but stepped over, one warp either to the left or right. In regular twill, the diagonal line is repeated regularly, usually running upward from left to right at 45°. The weave can be varied in many ways—for example, by changing the direction of the twill line (as in herringbone twill) or its angle. Twill is much used for men's wear and many other clothing applications because it has stretch on both diagonals, which makes clothes comfortable even if closely fitted. Denim and many tweeds are of twill weave.

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Fabric constructed by the satin weaving method, one of the three basic textile weaves. Satin weave superficially resembles twill but does not have the regular step in each successive weft that characterizes twills. Thus, there is no strong diagonal line, and the fabric is smooth-faced, with an unbroken surface made up of long floating warp yarns. Because satins are susceptible to the wear caused by rubbing and snagging, they are considered luxury fabrics. Satin is made in different weights for various uses, including dresses (particularly evening wear), linings, bedspreads, and upholstery. Though originally of silk, it may be made of yarns of other fibres.

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Even-weave fabric or canvas is any woven textile where the warp and weft threads are of the same size.

Even-weave fabrics are typically required as foundations for counted-thread embroidery styles such as cross-stitch, needlepoint, and blackwork so that a stitch of the same "count" (that is, crossing the same number of fabric threads) will be the same length whether it crosses warp or weft threads.

Even-weave fabrics include even-weave linen, aida cloth, and needlepoint canvas.

References

  • Readers Digest Complete Guide to Needlework, 1979, ISBN 0-89577-059-8.
  • S.F.A. Caulfield and B.C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885.
  • Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7.

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