The Metropolitan Water Board was founded in 1903 to bring the nine private water companies supplying water to London under a single public body. The members of the board were nominated by the various local authorities within its area of supply. A Royal Commission had reported in 1899 on the need for such controls.
The board was abolished in 1974 and control transferred to the Thames Water Authority, now Thames Water.
The board was created by the The Metropolis Water Act 1902
(2 Edw.7, c.41). The board as originally constituted in the Act had 67 members; 65 of these were nominated by local authorities, who appointed a paid chairman and vice-chairman. The nominating bodies were:
The first Metropolitan Water Board retired on 1 June 1907, with a new board being nominated every three years thereafter. As local government changes took place, the nominating bodies changed.
The board compulsorily acquired the following water companies:
Also acquired at no cost were the water undertakings of Tottenham and Enfield Urban District Councils
Area of the board
The board's area, described as its "Limits of Supply" was considerably larger than the administrative County of London: 559 square miles as opposed to 116 square miles. The limits were to be the same as the area supplied by the various undertakings acquired with the addition of the parishes of Sunbury
. It comprised the entire county of London and much of Middlesex, with outer boundaries at Cheshunt
and East Ham
and Foots Cray
in Kent, and Malden
and Kingston upon Thames
. The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
described " Water London " as an irregular area extending from Ware in Hertfordshire to Sevenoaks in Kent, and westward as far as Ealing and Sunbury
Final Years (1965 – 1974)
Upon the reorganization of local government in Greater London in 1965, the Board’s constitution was amended by the London Government Order 1965 (SI 1965/654) and from 1 November 1965 until its abolition on 1 April 1974, the Board had 39 members, appointed by the constituent authorities, as following:-
The Greater London Council appointed 6 members, while the Common Council of the City of London, 26 of the London Borough Councils, the County Councils of Essex, Kent, Surrey and Hertfordshire, the Thames Conservancy and the Lee Conservancy Catchment Board all appointed one member each.
While there were a number of local authorities wholly or partly within the Board’s area which were not directly represented on the Board, they were indirectly represented through either the Greater London Council or appropriate County Council.
The term of office of members of the Board was three years. The chairman and vice-chairman were elected by the Board on an annual basis.
The various public water boards and local authority water undertakings in England and Wales were reorganised by the Water Act 1973
. Ten large Water Authorities were established based on river basins and catchment areas. Accordingly, in 1974, the assets of the Metropolitan Water Board passed to the Thames Water Authority
governed by a 60 person board, and covering the area from the source of the Thames in Wiltshire
to the Thames Estuary
- London's Water Supply 1903-1953. A Review of the Work of the Metropolitan Water Board. Edited by W. S. Chevalier Clerk of the Board. Published by the Board in 1953
- The Water Supply of London. Edited by S. D. Askew Clerk of the Board. Published by the Board in 1961
- Metropolis Water Act 1902
- A brief description of the Undertaking with Notes on the Works at Ashford Common, Hampton, Walton, Stoke Newington and Deptford published by the MWB in 1965