The range, composed of heavily metamorphosed schist and quartzite, is oriented north-south and is located in the towns of New Ipswich, Temple, Sharon, Peterborough, and Greenfield, New Hampshire; and in Massachusetts, the towns of Ashburnham and Ashby.
Significant parcels on the Wapack Range have been conserved as state parks, state forests, or properties managed by non-profit land conservation organizations. Miller State Park, the oldest state park in New Hampshire, is located on Pack Monadnock. A defunct ski area on Temple Mountain was acquired by the state of New Hampshire in 2006 and is also slated for state park status. Conservation efforts on Mount Watatic have resulted in the protection of the mountain from recent attempts to blast a communications tower road to the summit and open the mountain to housing development. The non-profit Friends of the Wapack have been involved in conservation of the range since 1985.