Several trees of the Juglandaceae are of commercial importance for the edible nuts and for lumber. The "nuts"(they are actually drupelike), usually enclosed in a leathery or woody hull, include many of the most valuable food nuts of the United States—the walnut and the butternut of the walnut genus Juglans and the pecan, hickory nut, pignut, and mockernut of the hickory genus Carya. The single-seeded nuts contain no endosperm; the edible portion is the corrugated, meaty seed leaves of the embryo itself. Lumber is obtained chiefly from Juglans, Carya, and Engelhardia. The latter genus is now restricted to East Asia, but fossil trees have been found in the United States. Species of these and other genera (e.g., Pterocarya, the Asian wingnuts) are often planted as ornamental shade trees.
The walnut genus Juglans (from Lat. Jovis glans=nut of Jove) is the largest and most widely distributed genus of the family. The dark timber of the black walnut (J. nigra), found in hardwood forests in the eastern half of North America, and of the Persian, or English, walnut (J. regia), native to W Asia, is unusually hard and durable and is valued for furniture, interior paneling, gunstocks, musical instruments, and other uses. Black walnut has been the foremost cabinet wood of North America since colonial times.
The closer-grained English walnut, usually sold as lumber under the name Circassian walnut, is widely cultivated in S Europe and the Orient and has been introduced with great success into California, now the major producing area of the world. The nut of this tree is more easily extracted from the shell than that of the black walnut and is the one usually sold commercially for use as a table nut and for confectionery, flavorings, and sometimes pickling. A decoction of the leaves, bark, and hulls has been used for a brown wool dye and the crushed leaves for an insect repellent.
The butternut, or white walnut (J. cinerea), of approximately the same range as the black walnut, has a sweet and oily nut that is gathered locally but is not of commercial importance. The butternut is also timbered; the wood is softer than that of the black and English walnuts. Sugar is sometimes obtained from its sap, and the hulls yield a yellow to gray dye that gave color to the homespun of pioneers and to the "butternut" uniforms of some Confederate soldiers. The inner root bark, called butternut bark, has been used in domestic remedies, as have the hulls of the English walnut. Other American and Old World walnuts are also used and esteemed locally for timber, dyes, and food.
The walnut family is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Juglandales.
Any of about 20 species of deciduous trees in the genus Juglans, family Juglandaceae. Black walnut (J. nigra) of eastern North America and English, or Persian, walnut (J. regia), native to Iran, are valuable timber trees that produce edible nuts. The butternut (J. cinerea) of eastern North America also produces an edible nut. The walnut family contains an additional seven genera of flowering plants, found mainly in the northern temperate zone in a variety of habitats. Pecan and hickory are among the many family members that are prized for both their edible nuts and their strong, attractive woods, especially noted for their grain patterns and lustre. Leaves of the walnut family are feather-like; tiny, resinous scales that look like yellow dots on the undersurface of the leaflets give Juglans species a pungent aroma.
Learn more about walnut with a free trial on Britannica.com.
National monument, north-central Arizona, U.S. Established in 1915 and covering an area of 3 sq mi (8 sq km), it preserves more than 300 pre-Columbian dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians in shallow caves on the canyon walls. Main occupancy was from AD 1000 to 1200.
Learn more about Walnut Canyon National Monument with a free trial on Britannica.com.
With exceptions to some busy intersections (such as near Mt. San Antonio College), the hilly and affluent city is considerably more relaxed in comparison to most nearby neighborhoods. The city is almost and is home to more than 32,000 people and 600 businesses. A large Sysco headquarters is located in the city.
Spaniards who arrived here in the early 1800s introduced the concept of ranchos and started agricultural development and the creation of home sites. The first land grants in the Walnut area were those of the Rancho De San Jose granted to Don Ricardo Vejar and Don Ygnacio Palomares; the Rancho De Los Nogales, issued to Jose De La Cruz Linares; and Rancho La Puente, issued to John Rowland and William Workman in 1842 which consisted of a total of . The City of Walnut was included as part of one of the 24 ranchos belonging to the San Gabriel Mission
In 1868, John Rowland and William Workman divided Rancho La Puente, leaving Rowland the eastern half and Workman the western half. Rowland’s land included the western portion of Walnut. The land was used for raising cattle and growing wheat, grapes, and fruit trees.
Many years earlier in 1840, Mexican Governor Juan Alvardo awarded a man named Jose De La Cruz Linares a land grant of , land which included a portion of Walnut. This land was known as Rancho De Nogales, or Ranch of the Walnut Trees. In 1847, seven years after the unfortunate death of Linares, the rancho was acquired by Ricardo Vejar. This land included the eastern portion of Walnut and became part of Rancho San Jose. The City of Walnut originally obtained its name from the Rancho De Los Nogales land grant, Nogales being the Spanish word for walnut.
In order to preserve part of the community’s history, the City of Walnut’s Bicentennial Commission selected the construction of Lemon Creek Park and the restoration of the William R. Rowland Adobe Redwood Ranch House as Walnut’s bicentennial project. In 1871, the Lemon Creek Park area became the property of Sheriff William Rowland, who inherited the ranch from his father, John Rowland. The modest structure served as the home of Mr. Meridith, ranch foreman for William Rowland. It was built in 1883. The adobe redwood ranch house is one of the few remaining original ranch style redwood and adobe structures in the area. On October 1, 1975, the State Landmark Committee placed the W.R. Rowland ranch house in the National Registry of Historical Places.
Walnut was one of the only cities to have Black Walnuts able to be picked.
On July 29, 2008, a 5.4 earthquake shook the eastern portion of the LA basin, with a strong shaking felt in Walnut.
There were 8,260 households out of which 50.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.1% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 8.2% were non-families. 5.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.63 and the average family size was 3.74.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $97,367, and the median income for a family was $106,996. Males had a median income of $51,944 versus $36,197 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,196. About 5.8% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.8% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.
Portions of the western side of Walnut is also served by the Rowland Unified School District.