Fedorchuk was born in Ukraine to a peasant family. He joined the Soviet secret police in 1939 and served in the SMERSH during World War II. He rose through the ranks to become the chief of the Ukrainian KGB 1970. He succeeded his patron Yuri Andropov in May 26, 1982.
When Andropov became the Soviet leader in November 1982, he named Fedorchuk the minister of interior of Soviet Union.