Virgin Mary

Virgin Mary

Virgin Mary: see Mary.

Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin), detail, oil on canvas by John Opie, c. 1797; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born April 27, 1759, London, Eng.—died Sept. 10, 1797, London) English writer. She taught school and worked as a governess and as a translator for a London publisher. Her early Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787) foreshadowed her mature work on the place of women in society, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), whose core is a plea for equality in the education of men and women. The Vindication is widely regarded as the founding document of modern feminism. In 1797 she married the philosopher William Godwin; she died days after the birth of their daughter, Mary (see Mary Shelley), that same year.

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orig. Marie Wiegmann

(born Nov. 13, 1886, Hanover, Ger.—died Sept. 18, 1973, West Berlin, W.Ger.) Pioneering German dancer. Wigman studied with Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf Laban and made her debut in 1914. Only a few years later she began a stellar career as an innovative choreographer. Her impact on dance throughout the West was immense. Her students included Hanya Holm, who exerted a major influence on the development of American modern dance, and thousands of other original choreographers.

Learn more about Wigman, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, detail of an oil painting by Richard Rothwell, first exhibited 1840; elipsis

(born Aug. 30, 1797, London, Eng.—died Feb. 1, 1851, London) English Romantic novelist. The only daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, she met and eloped with Percy B. Shelley in 1814. They married in 1816 after his first wife committed suicide. Mary Shelley's best-known work is Frankenstein (1818), a narrative of the dreadful consequences of a scientist's artificially creating a human being. After her husband's death in 1822, she devoted herself to publicizing his writings and educating their son. Of her several other novels, the best, The Last Man (1826), is an account of the future destruction of the human race by a plague.

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(flourished 1st century, Palestine; feast day July 22) Follower of Jesus and the first person to see the resurrected Christ. According to Luke 8:2 and Mark 16:9, Jesus cleansed her of seven demons. She accompanied him in Galilee, and she witnessed his Crucifixion and burial. On Easter morning she went with two other women to anoint the corpse, but the tomb was empty. Christ later appeared to her and instructed her to tell the Apostles that he was ascending to God. Popular tradition has long associated her with the repentant prostitute who anointed Christ's feet.

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orig. Mary Stuart

(born Dec. 8, 1542, Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, Scot.—died Feb. 8, 1587, Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, Eng.) Queen of Scotland (1542–67). She became queen when her father, James V (1512–42), died six days after her birth. She was sent by her mother, Mary of Guise, to be raised at the court of the French king Henry II and was married in 1558 to his son Francis II. After Francis's brief rule as king (1559–60) ended with his premature death, Mary returned to Scotland (1561), where she was distrusted because of her Catholic upbringing. In 1565 the red-haired queen married her ambitious cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, and became a victim of intrigues among the Scottish nobles. Darnley conspired with them to murder her confidant David Riccio. After the birth of her son James (later James I of England) in 1566, Mary was estranged from Darnley, who was murdered in 1567. Ignoring objections by the jealous Scottish nobility, she married James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell (1535?–78), a suspect in Darnley's murder. The rebellious nobles deserted her army at Carberry Hill and forced her to abdicate in favour of her son (1567). After failed attempts to win back the throne, she sought refuge in England with her cousin Elizabeth I, who arranged to keep her in captivity. Several uprisings by English Catholics in Mary's favour convinced Elizabeth to have Mary tried and condemned; she was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in 1587.

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(born Feb. 11, 1934, London, Eng.) English fashion designer. Specializing in youth-oriented fashions, she was responsible in the 1960s for the “Chelsea look” of England and the widespread popularity of the miniskirt and “hot pants.” After opening a successful boutique called Bazaar in 1957, she went on to mass-produce her designs on a multimillion-dollar annual scale.

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(born Feb. 10, 1927, Laurel, Miss., U.S.) U.S. soprano. She was trained at the Juilliard School. After her debut in a revival of Four Saints in Three Acts in 1952, she made her name in the international tour of Porgy and Bess (1953–55). She sang in Aïda at Milan's La Scala in 1960 and made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1961. Price was one of the Met's most popular stars for more than two decades and was the first African American singer to achieve an international reputation in opera. She gave her farewell performance of Aïda at the Met in 1985 but continued to give recitals.

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orig. Gladys Mary Smith

(born April 9, 1893, Toronto, Ont., Can.—died May 28, 1979, Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. film actress. She acted with a stock company from age 5, went on tour at 8, and was performing on Broadway by 18. She starred in D.W. Griffith's The Lonely Villa (1909) and by 1913 was acting in movies exclusively. One of the first movie stars, she became a symbol of innocence and was known as “America's sweetheart.” Her silent films include Tess of the Storm Country (1914), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), and Pollyanna (1920). A shrewd businesswoman, she formed United Artists Corp. (1919) with her second husband, Douglas Fairbanks, and others. She received an Academy Award for her first sound film, Coquette (1929). She retired from acting in 1933 and received a special Academy Award in 1975.

Learn more about Pickford, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 25, 1925, Savannah, Ga., U.S.—died Aug. 3, 1964, Milledgeville, Ga.) U.S. writer. She spent most of her life on her mother's farm in Milledgeville, Ga. A devout Roman Catholic, she usually set her works in the rural South and often examined the relationship between the individual and God by putting her characters in grotesque and extreme situations. Her first novel, Wise Blood (1952), combines a keen ear for common speech, a caustic religious imagination, and a flair for the absurd that characterized all of her work. With the story collections A Good Man Is Hard to Find (1955) and Everything That Rises Must Converge (1965), she was acclaimed as a master of the form. Her other work of fiction was the novel The Violent Bear It Away (1960). Long crippled by lupus, she died at age 39. The Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction is the preeminent American award of its kind.

Learn more about O'Connor, (Mary) Flannery with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Lady Mary Pierrepont

(baptized May 26, 1689, London, Eng.—died Aug. 21, 1762, London) English writer, the most colourful Englishwoman of her time. A prolific letter writer, Montagu is remembered chiefly for 52 superb letters chronicling her stay in Constantinople, where her husband was ambassador from 1716 to 1718. On their return, they introduced the Middle Eastern practice of smallpox vaccination into England. Also a poet, essayist, feminist, and eccentric, she was a friend of John Gay and Alexander Pope, who later turned against and satirized her. Among her writings are six “town eclogues,” witty adaptations of Virgil; a lively attack on Jonathan Swift (1734); and essays dealing with feminism and the moral cynicism of her time.

Learn more about Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 21, 1912, Seattle, Wash., U.S.—died Oct. 25, 1989, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and critic. She served on the editorial staff of the Partisan Review from 1937 to 1948. She began writing fiction at the urging of her second husband, Edmund Wilson. Her work is noted for bitingly satiric commentaries on marriage, the impotence of intellectuals, and the role of women in contemporary urban America. Her novels include The Company She Keeps (1942); The Group (1963), her most popular work; Birds of America (1971); and Cannibals and Missionaries (1979). She also wrote two autobiographies, Memories of a Catholic Girlhood (1957) and How I Grew (1987).

Learn more about McCarthy, Mary (Therese) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Stuart

(born Dec. 8, 1542, Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian, Scot.—died Feb. 8, 1587, Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, Eng.) Queen of Scotland (1542–67). She became queen when her father, James V (1512–42), died six days after her birth. She was sent by her mother, Mary of Guise, to be raised at the court of the French king Henry II and was married in 1558 to his son Francis II. After Francis's brief rule as king (1559–60) ended with his premature death, Mary returned to Scotland (1561), where she was distrusted because of her Catholic upbringing. In 1565 the red-haired queen married her ambitious cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, and became a victim of intrigues among the Scottish nobles. Darnley conspired with them to murder her confidant David Riccio. After the birth of her son James (later James I of England) in 1566, Mary was estranged from Darnley, who was murdered in 1567. Ignoring objections by the jealous Scottish nobility, she married James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell (1535?–78), a suspect in Darnley's murder. The rebellious nobles deserted her army at Carberry Hill and forced her to abdicate in favour of her son (1567). After failed attempts to win back the throne, she sought refuge in England with her cousin Elizabeth I, who arranged to keep her in captivity. Several uprisings by English Catholics in Mary's favour convinced Elizabeth to have Mary tried and condemned; she was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in 1587.

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orig. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, detail of an oil painting by Richard Rothwell, first exhibited 1840; elipsis

(born Aug. 30, 1797, London, Eng.—died Feb. 1, 1851, London) English Romantic novelist. The only daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, she met and eloped with Percy B. Shelley in 1814. They married in 1816 after his first wife committed suicide. Mary Shelley's best-known work is Frankenstein (1818), a narrative of the dreadful consequences of a scientist's artificially creating a human being. After her husband's death in 1822, she devoted herself to publicizing his writings and educating their son. Of her several other novels, the best, The Last Man (1826), is an account of the future destruction of the human race by a plague.

Learn more about Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin), detail, oil on canvas by John Opie, c. 1797; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born April 27, 1759, London, Eng.—died Sept. 10, 1797, London) English writer. She taught school and worked as a governess and as a translator for a London publisher. Her early Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787) foreshadowed her mature work on the place of women in society, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), whose core is a plea for equality in the education of men and women. The Vindication is widely regarded as the founding document of modern feminism. In 1797 she married the philosopher William Godwin; she died days after the birth of their daughter, Mary (see Mary Shelley), that same year.

Learn more about Wollstonecraft, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Marie Wiegmann

(born Nov. 13, 1886, Hanover, Ger.—died Sept. 18, 1973, West Berlin, W.Ger.) Pioneering German dancer. Wigman studied with Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf Laban and made her debut in 1914. Only a few years later she began a stellar career as an innovative choreographer. Her impact on dance throughout the West was immense. Her students included Hanya Holm, who exerted a major influence on the development of American modern dance, and thousands of other original choreographers.

Learn more about Wigman, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 1, 1913, Weatherford, Texas, U.S.—died Nov. 3, 1990, Rancho Mirage, Calif.) U.S. singer and actress. She co-owned a dancing school in her native Weatherford, Texas, before moving in 1938 to New York City, where she won a small part in the musical Leave It to Me and became famous for her rendition of “My Heart Belongs to Daddy.” She appeared in movies before returning to Broadway to star in One Touch of Venus (1943). Martin originated the role of Nellie Forbush in South Pacific (1949–53) and later starred in Peter Pan (1954, Tony Award; television version, 1955), The Sound of Music (1959, Tony Award), and I Do, I Do (1966).

Learn more about Martin, Mary (Virginia) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 21, 1912, Seattle, Wash., U.S.—died Oct. 25, 1989, New York, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and critic. She served on the editorial staff of the Partisan Review from 1937 to 1948. She began writing fiction at the urging of her second husband, Edmund Wilson. Her work is noted for bitingly satiric commentaries on marriage, the impotence of intellectuals, and the role of women in contemporary urban America. Her novels include The Company She Keeps (1942); The Group (1963), her most popular work; Birds of America (1971); and Cannibals and Missionaries (1979). She also wrote two autobiographies, Memories of a Catholic Girlhood (1957) and How I Grew (1987).

Learn more about McCarthy, Mary (Therese) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 11, 1934, London, Eng.) English fashion designer. Specializing in youth-oriented fashions, she was responsible in the 1960s for the “Chelsea look” of England and the widespread popularity of the miniskirt and “hot pants.” After opening a successful boutique called Bazaar in 1957, she went on to mass-produce her designs on a multimillion-dollar annual scale.

Learn more about Quant, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Gladys Mary Smith

(born April 9, 1893, Toronto, Ont., Can.—died May 28, 1979, Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. film actress. She acted with a stock company from age 5, went on tour at 8, and was performing on Broadway by 18. She starred in D.W. Griffith's The Lonely Villa (1909) and by 1913 was acting in movies exclusively. One of the first movie stars, she became a symbol of innocence and was known as “America's sweetheart.” Her silent films include Tess of the Storm Country (1914), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), and Pollyanna (1920). A shrewd businesswoman, she formed United Artists Corp. (1919) with her second husband, Douglas Fairbanks, and others. She received an Academy Award for her first sound film, Coquette (1929). She retired from acting in 1933 and received a special Academy Award in 1975.

Learn more about Pickford, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 28, 1797, near Buckland, Mass., U.S.—died March 5, 1849, South Hadley) U.S. pioneer in higher education for women. She studied at various academies, supporting herself from age 17 by teaching. Her success as a teacher and administrator, and the demand for the young women she had trained, led to her plan for a permanent instructional institution for women. The school she founded in South Hadley, Mass., opened in 1837 as the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (the forerunner of Mount Holyoke College), and she served as its principal until her death.

Learn more about Lyon, Mary (Mason) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Elizabeth Mapes

(born Jan. 26, 1831, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 21, 1905, Onteora Park, N.Y.) U.S. author. She began writing children's stories when she was suddenly widowed with two small sons. Her first collection, Irvington Stories (1864), was followed by Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates (1865), which became a children's classic. In 1873 she was named editor of the new children's magazine St. Nicholas; its success stemmed from her high standards, which attracted such writers as Mark Twain, Louisa May Alcott, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Rudyard Kipling.

Learn more about Dodge, Mary Mapes with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(flourished 1st century, Palestine; feast day July 22) Follower of Jesus and the first person to see the resurrected Christ. According to Luke 8:2 and Mark 16:9, Jesus cleansed her of seven demons. She accompanied him in Galilee, and she witnessed his Crucifixion and burial. On Easter morning she went with two other women to anoint the corpse, but the tomb was empty. Christ later appeared to her and instructed her to tell the Apostles that he was ascending to God. Popular tradition has long associated her with the repentant prostitute who anointed Christ's feet.

Learn more about Mary Magdalene, Saint with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Jane McLeod

(born July 10, 1875, Mayesville, S.C., U.S.—died May 18, 1955, Daytona Beach, Fla.) U.S. educator. Born to former slaves, she made her way through college and in 1904 founded a school that later became part of Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Fla. She was president of the college in 1923–42 and 1946–47, also serving as a special adviser to Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Prominent in African-American organizations, particularly women's groups, she directed the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration (1936–44).

Learn more about Bethune, Mary (Jane) McLeod with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 30, 1662, London, Eng.—died Dec. 28, 1694, London) Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689–94). The daughter of King James II, a Catholic convert, she was reared as a Protestant and in 1677 married to her cousin, William of Orange. They lived in Holland until English nobles opposed to James's pro-Catholic policies invited William and Mary to assume the English throne. After William landed with a Dutch force (1688), James fled, and Mary and William (as King William III) became corulers of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689). Mary enjoyed great popularity, and her Dutch tastes had an influence on English pottery, landscape gardening, and interior design. She died of smallpox at age 32.

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or Mary Tudor

(born Feb. 18, 1516, Greenwich, near London, Eng.—died Nov. 17, 1558, London) Queen of England (1553–58). The daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, she was declared illegitimate after Henry's divorce and new marriage to Anne Boleyn (1533). In 1544 Mary was restored to court and granted succession to the throne. After becoming queen (1553), she married Philip II of Spain, restored Roman Catholicism, and revived the laws against heresy. The resulting persecution of Protestant rebels and the execution of some 300 heretics earned her the hatred of her subjects and the nickname “Bloody Mary.” She waged an unsuccessful war against France that in 1558 resulted in the loss of Calais, England's last foothold on the Continent.

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orig. Mary Harris known as Mother Jones

(born May 1, 1830, Cork, Ire.—died Nov. 30, 1930, Silver Spring, Md., U.S.) Irish-born U.S. labour organizer. She was brought to the U.S. as a child in 1835. In 1867 she lost her children and husband (an ironworker) in a yellow-fever epidemic in Memphis, Tenn.; four years later she lost all her possessions in the great Chicago fire. She turned for assistance to the Knights of Labor, which led to her becoming a highly visible figure in the U.S. labour movement. She traveled across the country, organizing for the United Mine Workers and supporting strikes wherever they were being held. At 93 she was still working among striking coal miners in West Virginia. She actively supported legislation to prohibit child labour. She was a founder of the Social Democratic Party (1898) and the Industrial Workers of the World (1905). Her autobiography was published in 1925. She died at the age of 100 and was buried in the Union Miners' Cemetery in Mount Olive, Ill.

Learn more about Jones, Mary Harris with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S.—died June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, France) U.S. painter and printmaker, active in Paris. She spent her early years traveling in Europe with her wealthy family. After attending the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1860–65) she later studied in Paris, copying Old Masters. In 1874 Cassatt chose Paris as her permanent residence and established her studio there. She shared with the Impressionists an interest in experiment and in the use of bright colours inspired by the out-of-doors. Edgar Degas became her friend, and at his request she exhibited with the Impressionists. She portrayed scenes of everyday life, particularly images of mothers and children, and was skilled at drawing and printmaking. Some of her best works were executed in pastel. Through her social contacts with wealthy private collectors, she promoted Impressionism in the U.S. and exerted a lasting influence on U.S. taste.

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orig. Mary Morse Baker

Mary Baker Eddy.

(born July 16, 1821, Bow, near Concord, N.H., U.S.—died Dec. 3, 1910, Chestnut Hill, Mass.) U.S. religious leader, founder of Christian Science. A daughter of Congregationalist descendants of old New England families, she married in 1843; her husband died the following year, and she married again in 1853. She suffered from ill health for much of her life. In the early 1860s she was cured of a spinal malady by Phineas P. Quimby (1802–66), who cured ailments without medication. She remained well until shortly after Quimby's death; in 1866 she suffered a severe fall and lost hope for recovery, only to be healed by reading the New Testament. She considered that moment her discovery of Christian Science and spent several years evolving her system. In 1875 she published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which her followers regarded as divinely inspired. Having divorced in 1873, in 1877 she married one of her followers, Asa G. Eddy (d. 1882). The Church of Christ, Scientist was organized in 1879. Eddy established the Massachusetts Metaphysical College in 1881; she also founded three periodicals, notably The Christian Science Monitor (1908).

Learn more about Eddy, Mary Baker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 1, 1913, Weatherford, Texas, U.S.—died Nov. 3, 1990, Rancho Mirage, Calif.) U.S. singer and actress. She co-owned a dancing school in her native Weatherford, Texas, before moving in 1938 to New York City, where she won a small part in the musical Leave It to Me and became famous for her rendition of “My Heart Belongs to Daddy.” She appeared in movies before returning to Broadway to star in One Touch of Venus (1943). Martin originated the role of Nellie Forbush in South Pacific (1949–53) and later starred in Peter Pan (1954, Tony Award; television version, 1955), The Sound of Music (1959, Tony Award), and I Do, I Do (1966).

Learn more about Martin, Mary (Virginia) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 28, 1797, near Buckland, Mass., U.S.—died March 5, 1849, South Hadley) U.S. pioneer in higher education for women. She studied at various academies, supporting herself from age 17 by teaching. Her success as a teacher and administrator, and the demand for the young women she had trained, led to her plan for a permanent instructional institution for women. The school she founded in South Hadley, Mass., opened in 1837 as the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (the forerunner of Mount Holyoke College), and she served as its principal until her death.

Learn more about Lyon, Mary (Mason) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Lady Mary Pierrepont

(baptized May 26, 1689, London, Eng.—died Aug. 21, 1762, London) English writer, the most colourful Englishwoman of her time. A prolific letter writer, Montagu is remembered chiefly for 52 superb letters chronicling her stay in Constantinople, where her husband was ambassador from 1716 to 1718. On their return, they introduced the Middle Eastern practice of smallpox vaccination into England. Also a poet, essayist, feminist, and eccentric, she was a friend of John Gay and Alexander Pope, who later turned against and satirized her. Among her writings are six “town eclogues,” witty adaptations of Virgil; a lively attack on Jonathan Swift (1734); and essays dealing with feminism and the moral cynicism of her time.

Learn more about Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Harris known as Mother Jones

(born May 1, 1830, Cork, Ire.—died Nov. 30, 1930, Silver Spring, Md., U.S.) Irish-born U.S. labour organizer. She was brought to the U.S. as a child in 1835. In 1867 she lost her children and husband (an ironworker) in a yellow-fever epidemic in Memphis, Tenn.; four years later she lost all her possessions in the great Chicago fire. She turned for assistance to the Knights of Labor, which led to her becoming a highly visible figure in the U.S. labour movement. She traveled across the country, organizing for the United Mine Workers and supporting strikes wherever they were being held. At 93 she was still working among striking coal miners in West Virginia. She actively supported legislation to prohibit child labour. She was a founder of the Social Democratic Party (1898) and the Industrial Workers of the World (1905). Her autobiography was published in 1925. She died at the age of 100 and was buried in the Union Miners' Cemetery in Mount Olive, Ill.

Learn more about Jones, Mary Harris with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Latin Ave Maria

Principal Roman Catholic prayer addressed to the Virgin Mary. It begins with the greetings spoken to Mary by the Archangel Gabriel and by her cousin Elizabeth in the Gospel of Luke: “Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.” A closing petition, “Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death,” came into general use by the end of the 14th century. Churchgoers who attend confession are often asked to repeat the prayer as penance for sins.

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Dame Edith Evans as Mrs. Ross in The Whisperers, 1967.

(born Feb. 8, 1888, London, Eng.—died Oct. 14, 1976, Cranbrook, Kent) British actress. She made her stage debut as Cressida in William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (1912) and joined the Old Vic company in 1925. One of the finest actresses of the 20th century, she appeared in London and on Broadway in plays by Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and Noël Coward. She played Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest on stage and screen (1952). Her other films include Look Back in Anger (1959), Tom Jones (1963), The Chalk Garden (1964), and The Whisperers (1967).

Learn more about Evans, Dame Edith (Mary) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Morse Baker

Mary Baker Eddy.

(born July 16, 1821, Bow, near Concord, N.H., U.S.—died Dec. 3, 1910, Chestnut Hill, Mass.) U.S. religious leader, founder of Christian Science. A daughter of Congregationalist descendants of old New England families, she married in 1843; her husband died the following year, and she married again in 1853. She suffered from ill health for much of her life. In the early 1860s she was cured of a spinal malady by Phineas P. Quimby (1802–66), who cured ailments without medication. She remained well until shortly after Quimby's death; in 1866 she suffered a severe fall and lost hope for recovery, only to be healed by reading the New Testament. She considered that moment her discovery of Christian Science and spent several years evolving her system. In 1875 she published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which her followers regarded as divinely inspired. Having divorced in 1873, in 1877 she married one of her followers, Asa G. Eddy (d. 1882). The Church of Christ, Scientist was organized in 1879. Eddy established the Massachusetts Metaphysical College in 1881; she also founded three periodicals, notably The Christian Science Monitor (1908).

Learn more about Eddy, Mary Baker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Amelia Earhart.

(born July 24, 1897, Atchinson, Kan. U.S.—disappeared July 2, 1937, near Howland Island, Pacific Ocean) U.S. aviator, the first woman to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean. Earhart worked as a military nurse in Canada during World War I and later as a social worker in Boston. In 1928 she became the first woman to cross the Atlantic in a plane, though as a passenger. In 1932 she accomplished the flight alone, becoming the first woman and the second person to do so. In 1935 she became the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. In 1937 she set out with a navigator, Fred Noonan, to fly around the world; they had completed over two-thirds of the distance when her plane disappeared without a trace in the central Pacific Ocean. Speculation about her fate has continued to the present.

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orig. Dorothy Mary Crowfoot

(born May 12, 1910, Cairo, Egypt—died July 29, 1994, Shipston-on-Stour, Warwickshire, Eng.) English chemist. After studying at Oxford and Cambridge, she went to work at Oxford. From 1942 to 1949 she worked on a structural analysis of penicillin. In 1948 she and her colleagues made the first X-ray photograph of vitamin B12, one of the most complex nonprotein compounds, and they eventually completely determined its atomic arrangement. In 1969 she completed a similar three-dimensional analysis of insulin. Her work won her a 1964 Nobel Prize. She was chancellor of Bristol University (1970–88) and was known for her work for peace and international scientific cooperation. In 1965 she became the second woman ever awarded the Order of Merit.

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orig. Mary Elizabeth Mapes

(born Jan. 26, 1831, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 21, 1905, Onteora Park, N.Y.) U.S. author. She began writing children's stories when she was suddenly widowed with two small sons. Her first collection, Irvington Stories (1864), was followed by Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates (1865), which became a children's classic. In 1873 she was named editor of the new children's magazine St. Nicholas; its success stemmed from her high standards, which attracted such writers as Mark Twain, Louisa May Alcott, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Rudyard Kipling.

Learn more about Dodge, Mary Mapes with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dame Edith Evans as Mrs. Ross in The Whisperers, 1967.

(born Feb. 8, 1888, London, Eng.—died Oct. 14, 1976, Cranbrook, Kent) British actress. She made her stage debut as Cressida in William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (1912) and joined the Old Vic company in 1925. One of the finest actresses of the 20th century, she appeared in London and on Broadway in plays by Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and Noël Coward. She played Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest on stage and screen (1952). Her other films include Look Back in Anger (1959), Tom Jones (1963), The Chalk Garden (1964), and The Whisperers (1967).

Learn more about Evans, Dame Edith (Mary) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Agatha Christie, 1946.

(born Sept. 15, 1890, Torquay, Devon, Eng.—died Jan. 12, 1976, Wallingford, Oxfordshire) British detective novelist and playwright. Her first novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1920), introduced Hercule Poirot, the eccentric Belgian detective who would appear in about 25 novels. The elderly spinster Miss Jane Marple, her other principal detective figure, first appeared in Murder at the Vicarage (1930). Most of her approximately 75 novels, such as Murder on the Orient Express (1933; film, 1978), were best-sellers; translated into 100 languages, they have sold more than 100 million copies. Her plays include The Mousetrap (1952), which set a world record for longest continuous run, and Witness for the Prosecution (1953; film, 1958). She was married to the eminent archaeologist Sir Max Mallowan (1904–78).

Learn more about Christie, Dame Agatha (Mary Clarissa) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Agatha Christie, 1946.

(born Sept. 15, 1890, Torquay, Devon, Eng.—died Jan. 12, 1976, Wallingford, Oxfordshire) British detective novelist and playwright. Her first novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1920), introduced Hercule Poirot, the eccentric Belgian detective who would appear in about 25 novels. The elderly spinster Miss Jane Marple, her other principal detective figure, first appeared in Murder at the Vicarage (1930). Most of her approximately 75 novels, such as Murder on the Orient Express (1933; film, 1978), were best-sellers; translated into 100 languages, they have sold more than 100 million copies. Her plays include The Mousetrap (1952), which set a world record for longest continuous run, and Witness for the Prosecution (1953; film, 1958). She was married to the eminent archaeologist Sir Max Mallowan (1904–78).

Learn more about Christie, Dame Agatha (Mary Clarissa) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pa., U.S.—died June 14, 1926, Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, France) U.S. painter and printmaker, active in Paris. She spent her early years traveling in Europe with her wealthy family. After attending the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1860–65) she later studied in Paris, copying Old Masters. In 1874 Cassatt chose Paris as her permanent residence and established her studio there. She shared with the Impressionists an interest in experiment and in the use of bright colours inspired by the out-of-doors. Edgar Degas became her friend, and at his request she exhibited with the Impressionists. She portrayed scenes of everyday life, particularly images of mothers and children, and was skilled at drawing and printmaking. Some of her best works were executed in pastel. Through her social contacts with wealthy private collectors, she promoted Impressionism in the U.S. and exerted a lasting influence on U.S. taste.

Learn more about Cassatt, Mary with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Jane McLeod

(born July 10, 1875, Mayesville, S.C., U.S.—died May 18, 1955, Daytona Beach, Fla.) U.S. educator. Born to former slaves, she made her way through college and in 1904 founded a school that later became part of Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Fla. She was president of the college in 1923–42 and 1946–47, also serving as a special adviser to Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Prominent in African-American organizations, particularly women's groups, she directed the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration (1936–44).

Learn more about Bethune, Mary (Jane) McLeod with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Amelia Earhart.

(born July 24, 1897, Atchinson, Kan. U.S.—disappeared July 2, 1937, near Howland Island, Pacific Ocean) U.S. aviator, the first woman to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean. Earhart worked as a military nurse in Canada during World War I and later as a social worker in Boston. In 1928 she became the first woman to cross the Atlantic in a plane, though as a passenger. In 1932 she accomplished the flight alone, becoming the first woman and the second person to do so. In 1935 she became the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. In 1937 she set out with a navigator, Fred Noonan, to fly around the world; they had completed over two-thirds of the distance when her plane disappeared without a trace in the central Pacific Ocean. Speculation about her fate has continued to the present.

Learn more about Earhart, Amelia (Mary) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Virgin Mary is the name of a popular non-alcoholic cocktail. It is a Bloody Mary made without vodka. Therefore, it is essentially tomato juice, with the extra spices usually in a Bloody Mary.

The drink is known commonly in England and Australia as a Bloody Shame.

Recipe

One recipe is as follows:

  1. Fill a glass with ice.
  2. Add:
  3. Fill with tomato juice.
  4. Pour from one glass to another until mixed.
  5. Garnish with lemon juice and/or lime, celery and/or cucumber and/or cocktail shrimp.

References

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