Vicente

Vicente

Lombardo Toledano, Vicente, 1894-1968, Mexican labor leader. A successful lawyer, he became (1920) governor of the state of Puebla. In 1921 he joined the Mexican Regional Confederation of Workers (CROM). After the CROM lost the support of Plutarco Elías Calles it collapsed (1929), and Lombardo Toledano, a zealous Marxist, later founded (1936) the Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM) and became its first secretary. With the backing of President Lázaro Cárdenas the CTM soon rose in power and promoted urgent labor and welfare reforms. Under the conservative regime (1940-46) of Manuel Ávila Camacho, Lombardo Toledano was stripped of most of his power in the Mexican labor movement. He left the CTM in 1948 and founded the Popular party (later the Popular Socialist party), which he headed until his death. In 1949 he organized the Latin American Confederation of Labor (CTAL). He ran unsuccessfully for president in 1952.
López y Planes, Vicente, 1784-1856, Argentine statesman and poet. He served (1806-7) under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders. After the resignation of Rivadavia, he became (1827) provisional president of the United Provinces of La Plata. He was a minister under Dorrego and a prominent jurist under Juan Manuel de Rosas. After the fall of Rosas, López y Planes was made (1852) governor of Buenos Aires prov. Outstanding among his poems are Triunfo argentino, a ballad celebrating the successful Argentine defense against the British, and a war song commemorating the triumph of the revolution, which was adopted as the national hymn in 1813. He was the father of Vicente Fidel López.
Joanes, Vicente: see Macip, Vicente Juan.
Guerrero, Vicente, 1782-1831, Mexican revolutionist and president (Apr.-Dec., 1829). He fought under the command of Morelos y Pavón, spreading the revolution in the south. Guerrero won victory after victory. When Morelos was defeated and executed, Guerrero continued to wage guerrilla warfare, harassing the royalists. He fought on when most of the revolutionary leaders had been defeated or had given up the struggle for freedom. When Agustín de Iturbide was sent out in 1820 to defeat him, Guerrero won minor victories over Iturbide's troops but was later persuaded to adhere to the Plan of Iguala (1821) and to accept Iturbide's leadership. Thus the revolution lost its popular cast and passed into the hands of the landowning creoles and the clergy. Guerrero accepted Iturbide's empire in 1822 but later joined the revolution begun by Santa Anna. The flimsy structure of Iturbide's government fell, and Guerrero was elected a member of the provisional government. He became a liberal party leader in opposition to the conservative Nicolás Bravo, and helped to put down Bravo's revolution against President Guadalupe Victoria (1828). Defeated in the election of 1828, Guerrero charged fraud and, with the help of Santa Anna, led a successful revolution and was made president (1829). In his administration the Spanish invaders of Mexico were driven back by Santa Anna. In Dec., 1829, Anastasio Bustamante, the vice president, led a revolt against Guerrero, who retired to the south, where he conducted sporadic warfare throughout 1830. He was finally captured and shot.
Aleixandre, Vicente, 1898-1984, Spanish lyric poet. He won the national prize for literature for La destrucción o el amor (1935, tr. 1976) and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1976. His earlier verse, often free in form, is pessimistic and surrealistic. His later verse is marked by realism and then by an increasingly philosophical and meditative tone. Aleixandre's works are collected in Obras completas (1977).

See selected poems tr. by W. Barnstone and D. Garrison (1978) and ed. by L. Hyde (1979); study ed. by S. Daydí-Tolson (1981).

Fox Quesada, Vicente, 1942-, Mexican political leader, president of Mexico (2000-6). Raised on a ranch in rural central Mexico's Guanajuato state, he became a successful rancher and business executive. He joined Coca Cola in 1964 and rose to become the company's head in Mexico and the Caribbean. A charismatic right-of-center populist, Fox joined the conservative, pro-Catholic National Action party (PAN) when he entered politics in 1988 as an unsuccessful candidate for congress.

In 1995 he was elected governor of his native state, serving in that office until 1999 and earning a reputation as a promoter of small businesses, increased exports to the United States, and improved schools. Actively campaigning for president, he drew supporters from various parts of the political and cultural spectrum with his probusiness and antipoverty platform and his colorful personal style. His election (2000) as Mexico's president ended 71 years of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which had long been criticized for governmental inaction and institutional corruption.

Even before assuming office, Fox announced an ambitious campaign to reduce government corruption and rebuild Mexico's federal law enforcement system, as well as other reforms, and also proposed an agreement with the United States on a less restrictive immigration policy. In office, he brought to the presidency an informality it had not previously seen, made a number of antidrug and anticorruption moves, and brought Mexico to a new height of international prominence. His relations with the opposition-controlled congress, however, were difficult, and much of the legislation he proposed was not passed, including tax reforms and measures to encourage investment. The possible future presidential ambitions of his wife were a distraction in 2004, but in July of that year, after one of Fox's aides resigned and accused her of meddling in the government, she disavowed any intention of running for the office.

See his Revolution of Hope: The Life, Faith, and Dreams of a Mexican President (2007, with R. Allyn).

Vicente, Gil, 1470?-1536?, Portuguese dramatist and poet, considered second only to Camões. Vicente was attached to the courts of the Portuguese kings Manuel I and John II, and he may have been identical with, or related to, an accomplished goldsmith of the same name at the court. He was a humanist, and his writings reveal the influence of Renaissance Italy, the thought of Erasmus, and, in his early plays, the works of Encina. Vicente's lyric plays and entertainments were created (c.1500-c.1536) for production at court, and they varied from slight, farcical interludes to full comedies and tragicomedies. They vividly portray the breadth of Portuguese society. Some are profoundly religious, some especially satirical; Vicente was antagonistic to the corrupt clergy and pretentious parvenus at the court, and he decried the superficial glory of empire that hid the increasing poverty in Portugal. His writing, in Portuguese, in Spanish, and in an arbitrary combination of the two, was important in shaping modern Spanish and Portuguese drama. An accomplished musician, he interspersed his plays with exquisite songs. Although his works were suppressed by the Inquisition and his fame waned, he is now recognized as one of the principal figures of the Iberian Renaissance.

See R. P. Garay, Gil Vicente and the Development of the Comedia (1989).

Huidobro, Vicente, 1893-1948, Chilean poet, founder of the aesthetic movement known as creacionismo, which emphasized the value of the poet as verbal magician, exploring the deepest sources of poetic creation. He lived for many years in Paris and was a founder of the review Nord-Sud. Influenced by Guillaume Apollinaire and Pierre Reverdy, Huidobro is widely considered among the most important of the century's Latin American poets. His philosophy is ilustrated in his masterpiece, Altazor (1931), as well as in Tour Eiffel (1917), Manifestes (1925), and Ultimos poemas (1948).

See also selected poetry in English (1981); study by R. de Costa (1984).

Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente 1867-1928, Spanish novelist and politician, b. Valencia. Outspoken against the monarchy, Blasco Ibáñez published a radical republican journal, El pueblo, and was imprisoned 30 times for political activism. His novels are primarily realistic in conception. The early ones, set in Valencia, include Flor de mayo (1895, tr. The Mayflower, 1921), La barraca [The Cabin] (1898), Cañas y barro (1902, tr. Reeds and Mud, 1928), and La catedral (1903, tr. The Shadow of the Cathedral, 1909). He traveled in South America, returning to Spain at the outbreak of World War I. He became a propagandist for the Allies, and his war novel, Los cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis (1916, tr. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1918), made him world famous. He died a voluntary political exile.

See study by A. G. Day and E. C. Knowlton (1972).

Rocafuerte, Vicente, 1783-1847, president of Ecuador (1834-39). Rocafuerte headed (1833) the opposition to Juan José Flores. Leader of a revolt at Guayaquil (1834), he was defeated and imprisoned, but was released after he and Flores settled their differences. As president he promulgated a new constitution and accomplished many reforms, notably protection of the Native Americans and advancement and secularization of education. Protesting against the clerical policy and dictatorial practices of Flores, Rocafuerte went into exile in 1843.

(born circa 1465, Portugal—died 1536/37) Portuguese playwright. His first plays were produced in 1502, and for the next 34 years he acted as court dramatist and poet laureate, staging his plays to celebrate great events and religious occasions. Regarded as the founder of Portuguese drama, he wrote in both Portuguese and Spanish. His 44 extant plays reflect the change and upheaval of his era; they may be divided into religious plays, court plays, pastoral plays, popular farces, and romantic comedy. His works include Exhortation to War (1513), The Forge of Love (1524), and The Pilgrimage of the Aggrieved (1533).

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(born April 26, 1898, Sevilla, Spain—died Dec. 14, 1984, Madrid) Spanish poet. A member of the group of Spanish writers known as the Generation of 1927, he was strongly influenced by Surrealism. His first major book, Destruction or Love (1935), won the National Prize for Literature. Other works include Historia del corazón (1954), En un vasto dominio (1962), and Diálogos del conocimiento (1974). He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1977.

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Vicente Fox (left) delivering his acceptance speech after being sworn in as president of Mexico, elipsis

(born July 2, 1942, Mexico City, Mex.) President of Mexico (2000–06) whose election ended 71 years of uninterrupted rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He earned a degree in business administration from the Ibero-American University in Mexico City and later worked for the Coca-Cola Company, serving as its chief executive in Mexico (1975–79). In 1987 he joined the National Action Party (PAN) and the following year was elected to the national Chamber of Deputies. Elected governor of Guanajuato in 1995, he left the post in 1998 to focus on his national campaign. As president, he sought to improve relations with the United States and calm civil unrest in such areas as Chiapas.

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(born April 26, 1898, Sevilla, Spain—died Dec. 14, 1984, Madrid) Spanish poet. A member of the group of Spanish writers known as the Generation of 1927, he was strongly influenced by Surrealism. His first major book, Destruction or Love (1935), won the National Prize for Literature. Other works include Historia del corazón (1954), En un vasto dominio (1962), and Diálogos del conocimiento (1974). He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1977.

Learn more about Aleixandre, Vicente with a free trial on Britannica.com.

The Vicente's Poison Frog (Dendrobates vicentei) is a species of frog in the Dendrobatidae family. It is endemic to Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montanes, and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

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