Verdi

Verdi

[vair-dee; It. ver-dee]
Verdi, Giuseppe, 1813-1901, foremost Italian composer of opera, b. Le Roncole. Verdi, the son of an innkeeper, showed a precocious talent for the organ but was refused entrance to the Milan Conservatory as having been inadequately trained. He studied with Lavigna of La Scala, and in 1839 his first opera, Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio, was produced. His third opera, Nabucodonosor (1842, also known as Nabucco; the story of Nebuchadnezzar), was enormously successful. The next work I Lombardi alla prima Crociata (1843), concerning the First Crusade, assured Verdi's position at La Scala. Among his major successes of the next years were Ernani (1844), Rigoletto (1851), considered his first masterpiece, Il Trovatore (1853), and La Traviata (1853). These works showed him to be a master of dramatic composition and established him securely. Verdi's style was further developed in Un ballo in maschera [a masked ball] (1859) and La forza del destino [the power of destiny] (1862). In Aïda (1871) all the elements of his earlier style reach maturity, the music assuming a new dramatic importance to the story. Verdi next composed his great Requiem (1874) in memory of the writer Manzoni. Verdi greatly admired Shakespeare, on whose plays three of his operas are based—Macbeth (1847; rev. version 1865) and the masterpieces of his old age, Otello (1887) and Falstaff (1893; based on The Merry Wives of Windsor), for both of which Boito was librettist. In these two late works, finished at ages 73 and 80, Verdi astonished the musical world with a power, subtlety, and brilliance that marked the culmination of Italian grand opera. Verdi was greatly honored during his lifetime. He was elected a senator and offered a marquisate, which he declined. His superbly melodic works are performed throughout the world.

Bibliography

See his letters, ed. by C. Osborne (1971); biographies by F. Walker (1962), G. W. Martin (1963), J. Wechsberg (1974), M. J. Phillips-Matz (1994), and J. Rosselli (2000); study of his operas by J. Budden (3 vol., 1978-81).

(born Oct. 9/10, 1813, Roncole, near Busseto, duchy of Parma—died Jan. 27, 1901, Milan, Italy) Italian composer. He was the son of an innkeeper, and he showed talent early. While earning a living as an organist, he began to write operas in Milan; in 1839 his Oberto was successfully performed at La Scala, and it initiated Verdi's long association with the publisher Giulio Ricordi. His next opera, Un giorno di regno (1840), was a failure. Much worse, Verdi's two young daughters and his wife died. He overcame his despair by composing Nabucco (1842); it was a sensational success and was followed by the equally successful I Lombardi (1843). For the rest of the decade he wrote a hit opera every year. Rejecting the prevailing structure of Italian opera—a patchwork of open-ended scenes and inserted arias, duets, and trios—he began conceiving of an opera as a series of integrated scenes, then as unified acts. Specializing in stories in which people's private and public lives come into conflict, he produced a series of masterworks, including Rigoletto (1851), Il trovatore (1853), La traviata (1853), Don Carlos (1867), and Aïda (1871). A fervent nationalist, he was regarded as a great national figure. After composing his Requiem (1874), he retired, but when Ricordi brought him together with the poet and composer Arrigo Boito, initially to revise Simon Boccanegra, their mutual esteem led to the two great operas of Verdi's old age, Otello (1886) and Falstaff (1890).

Learn more about Verdi, Giuseppe (Fortunato Francesco) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 9/10, 1813, Roncole, near Busseto, duchy of Parma—died Jan. 27, 1901, Milan, Italy) Italian composer. He was the son of an innkeeper, and he showed talent early. While earning a living as an organist, he began to write operas in Milan; in 1839 his Oberto was successfully performed at La Scala, and it initiated Verdi's long association with the publisher Giulio Ricordi. His next opera, Un giorno di regno (1840), was a failure. Much worse, Verdi's two young daughters and his wife died. He overcame his despair by composing Nabucco (1842); it was a sensational success and was followed by the equally successful I Lombardi (1843). For the rest of the decade he wrote a hit opera every year. Rejecting the prevailing structure of Italian opera—a patchwork of open-ended scenes and inserted arias, duets, and trios—he began conceiving of an opera as a series of integrated scenes, then as unified acts. Specializing in stories in which people's private and public lives come into conflict, he produced a series of masterworks, including Rigoletto (1851), Il trovatore (1853), La traviata (1853), Don Carlos (1867), and Aïda (1871). A fervent nationalist, he was regarded as a great national figure. After composing his Requiem (1874), he retired, but when Ricordi brought him together with the poet and composer Arrigo Boito, initially to revise Simon Boccanegra, their mutual esteem led to the two great operas of Verdi's old age, Otello (1886) and Falstaff (1890).

Learn more about Verdi, Giuseppe (Fortunato Francesco) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Verdi-Mogul is a census-designated place (CDP) in Washoe County, Nevada, United States. It lies on the western side of the RenoSparks Metropolitan Statistical Area, just off Interstate Highway 80. The population was 2,949 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Verdi-Mogul is located at (39.514409, -119.957145). It lies at the western border of Nevada, adjacent to the California state line at the 120th meridian west.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 24.2 square miles (62.6 km²), of which, 24.1 square miles (62.4 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (0.37%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,949 people, 1,159 households, and 841 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 122.5 people per square mile (47.3/km²). There were 1,213 housing units at an average density of 50.4/sq mi (19.4/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.13% White, 0.51% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.78% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.29% of the population.

There were 1,159 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.4% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 36.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $67,708, and the median income for a family was $79,342. Males had a median income of $54,048 versus $36,793 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $38,233. About 3.1% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over.

The Verdi-Mogul area is served by the Washoe County School District.

2008 Earthquake Swarm

In March 2008, an earthquake swarm started.

References

External links

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