Varberg (Stockholm Metro)

Stockholm Metro

The Stockholm Metro (Stockholms tunnelbana) is the metro system in Stockholm, Sweden. The system has 100 stations in use, of which 47 are subterranean and 53 are above ground (surface and elevated) stations. There are seven lines numbered from 10 to 19, in three groups identified by a colour; the Green, the Red, and the Blue line. Each colour line has two or three numbered lines on shared sections through the Stockholm City Centre.

The metro system is owned by the Stockholm County Council through SL, which has contracted the operation to Veolia Transportation. The Stockholm Metro was the site of distribution for the first edition of Metro, now a worldwide chain of free newspapers.

History

The first part of the metro was opened in 1950, when an underground light rail line from 1933 was converted to metro standard. This line ran south from Slussen to Hökarängen. Over the following years, two more lines extending from Slussen (via Gullmarsplan, then Johanneshov) were opened. In 1952 a second system from Hötorget to the western suburbs was opened. In 1957 the two parts were connected via the Central station and the Old Town, forming the Green line. The Red line was opened in 1964 with two lines going from northeast to southwest via the city center. The third and final system, the Blue line, was opened in 1975 with two lines running northwest from the city center. The latest addition to the whole network yet, Skarpnäck station, was opened in 1994.

Network

Stations

There are 100 stations in use in the Stockholm metro. One station, Kymlinge, was built but never taken into use. One station has been taken out of use and demolished. The Bagarmossen old surface station was demolished and replaced with a new underground station there instead, this prior to the metro extension to Skarpnäck.

Stockholm's metro is well known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the longest art gallery in the world. This not fully true since some other metros, most notably Moscow has more stations with art. Several of the stations (especially on the Blue line) are left with the bedrock exposed, crude and unfinished, or as part of the decorations. At the Rissne station, an informative wall fresque about the history of Earth's civilizations runs along both sides of the platform.

Lines

  • The Green line has 3 line numbers and 49 stations: 12 subterranean (nine concrete, three rock) and 37 above ground stations. The track is 41,256 metres long. It opened 1 October 1950 (between Slussen and Hökarängen stations). It is used by 451,000 riders per workday or 146 million per year (2005).
  • The Red line has 2 line numbers and 36 stations: 20 subterranean (four concrete, 16 rock) and 15 above ground stations. The track is 41,238 metres long. It opened 5 April 1964. It is used by 394,000 riders per workday or 128 million per year (2005).
  • The Blue line has 2 line numbers and 20 stations: 19 subterranean (all rock) and one elevated station. The track is 25,516 metres long. It opened 31 August 1975. It is used by 171,000 riders per workday or 55 million per year (2005).

Trains are operated from 5 am to 1 am, with extended all night service on weekends. All lines have trains every 10 minutes during daytime, reduced to every 15 minutes in early mornings and late evenings, and every 30 minutes during nights. Additional trains in peak hours gives a train every 5–6 minutes on most stations, with 2–3 minutes between trains on the central parts of the network.

Line Stretch Travel
time
Length Stations
T10 KungsträdgårdenHjulsta 23 min 14
T11 KungsträdgårdenAkalla 22 min 12
T13 NorsborgRopsten 44 min 25
T14 FruängenMörby centrum 33 min 19
T17 ÅkeshovSkarpnäck 43 min 24
T18 AlvikFarsta strand 37 min 23
T19 Hässelby strandHagsätra 55 min 35
Entire metro network 100

Technology

Rolling stock

There are two main types of cars in the Stockholm Metro. The newer C20 stock, and the older C1–C15 stocks which are collectively referred to as the Cx stock. A train typically consists of two or three cars of the C20 stock, or four, six or eight cars of the Cx stock. A full length train — three C20 cars, or eight Cx cars — is about in length, and takes about 1,250 passengers of which about 380 are seated. The Blue line as well as the Mörby Centrum-line (from Stadion to Mörby Centrum) on the Red line was built with longer platforms to allow running trains consisting of ten Cx cars. When the C20 was introduced, it appeared that trains consisting of four C20 cars would not fit completely on these platforms.

There are 271 cars of the C20 stock, and around two hundred Cx stock cars. The green line only uses the new cars, and they are used most of the time on the red and blue lines. However, during rush hours, the older cars can occasionally be seen. Of the older cars the stocks C6, C9, C14 and C15 are still in use.

C20 stock cars

The C20 car is double-articulated, in length, in width, in height, and weighs 67 metric tons. The car takes 126 seated passengers, and 288 standing passengers. The C20 stock cars were built between 1996 and 2004.

A single prototype car designated C20F stock is in use. Built on Bombardier's FICAS technology, it has a lighter body, much thinner side walls, and more space compared to the regular C20, by using a sandwich-like composite construction of the body. The C20F weighs 65 metric tons, other exterior measurements are the same as for the C20. The C20F has the same number of seats as the C20, but has space for 323 standing passengers.

Cx stock cars

The Cx stock cars still in use are to in length, in width, to in height, and weigh 23 to 29 metric tons. The cars take 48 seated passengers, and 108 to 110 standing passengers. They were built in the 1970s and 1980s.

Infrastructure and safety

The Stockholm metro runs electrically using a current rail with a nominal operating voltage of 650 V DC on the Green and Red lines, 750 V DC on the Blue line.

The maximum speed is 80 km/h on the Red and Blue lines, 70 km/h on the Green line (50 km/h at the platforms). Maximum acceleration and deceleration is 0.8 m/s². The reason for the lower speed limit on the Green line is due to tighter curves than on the other lines.

To allow close-running trains with a high level of safety, the Tunnelbana uses a continuous signal safety system that sends information continually to the train's safety system. The signal is picked up from the running rails through two antennas placed in front of the first wheel axle and compared with data about the train's speed. Automatic braking is triggered if the train exceeds the maximum permitted speed at any time. The driver is given information about the speed limit through a display in the driver's cabin; in C20 stock, and in Cx stock outfitted for operation with the new signal system installed on the Green line, this is a speedometer with a red maximum speed indicator (needle), while the traditional display in the Cx stock is a set of three lights indicating one of three permitted speeds (High, Medium, Low). The system allows two trains to come close to each other but prevents collisions occurring at speeds greater than 15 km/h. More modern systems also ensure that stop signals are not passed.

Another possibility is ATO, which helps the driver by driving the train automatically. However, the driver still operates the door controls and allows the train to start. ATO is currently only available on the Green line, where a new signal system was installed in the late 1990s. This signal system, together with the C20 rolling stock, permits the use of ATO.

Graffiti

Since the mid 1980s the Stockholm Metro has been seriously affected by graffiti. Previously a train on which graffiti had been painted could remain in service for weeks and graffiti could remain in place at stations for months if not for years. Nowadays, however, trains with graffiti are taken out of service immediately and graffiti at stations is regularly cleaned up within a few days. The cost of graffiti and other types of vandalism has been calculated at approximately 100 million SEK per year (115 million SEK in 2006.)

During the 1990s the Stockholm Transit System (SL) started outsourcing protection to private security firms, some of which have been accused of using unlawful methods such as the use of plain clothes guards and heavy-handed treatment of vandals arrested, and even heavy-handed treatment of ticketless riders trying to escape. Since 2005, the Stockholm police have assigned a special task force (Klotterkommissionen) to address the issues. The mainstay among the private security contractors in the fight against graffiti is the Commuter Security Group.

Future

As of 2008, there are a few realistic plans for extensions in the Stockholm Metro in the near decades.

  • A one-station branch on the green line from Odenplan to Karolinska/Norra station. This metro extension outperforms the alternatives in a cost-benefit analysis. An early estimate of the cost is 1.4 billion SEK, and a build time of 3–5 years, which is also dependent on coordination with other constructions in the area, e.g. the Citybanan commuter rail tunnel.
  • Extension of the blue line from Kungsträdgården to Nacka with three possible end points; Nacka centre (7–7.5 billion SEK), Orminge (10.5–11 billion SEK), or Gustavsberg (15.5–16 billion SEK). An alternative to the metro extension is to improve on the existing bus traffic.

References

See also

External links

Search another word or see Varberg (Stockholm Metro)on Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature