He was a follower of Pandolfo Petrucci, the head of the powerful Petrucci family. Pandolfo employed him as a metallurgist. When Pandolfo died, Biringuccio remained tied to the Petrucci family, being employed by Pandolfo's son Borghese Petrucci. However, the uprising of 1515 forced Borghese to flee from Siena, taking Biringuccio with him. Biringuccio traveled about Italy, and visited Sicily in 1517.
In 1523 Pope Clement VII caused the reinstatement of the Petrucci family, and along with them Biringuccio was able to return from exile. In 1524 he was granted a monopoly on the production of saltpeter across all of Siena. However, this was short lived—in 1526, the people of Siena revolted and threw the Petrucci family out again. The family made an attempt (aided by Biringuccio) to regain Siena by force, but it failed.
In 1530, Siena entered a more peaceful phase, and Biringuccio returned. He was a Senator of the city in January and February of 1531, and took part in various projects.
In 1536, he was offered a job in Rome by the Church, and in 1538 he became head of the papal foundry, and director of munitions.
His exact place and date of death is unknown; all that is known is that a document dated 1539 mentions his death.