Vance, Cyrus Roberts

Vance, Cyrus Roberts

Vance, Cyrus Roberts, 1917-2002, U.S. secretary of state (1977-80), b. Clarksburg, W.Va., grad. Yale (B.A., 1939, LL.B., 1942). After seeing action in the Navy during World War II, Vance practiced law, becoming a respected international lawyer. He entered government service as a Senate commiittee counsel in 1957. and later served in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations as secretary of the army (1961-62), deputy secretary of defense (1964-67), and U.S. negotiator to the Paris Peace Conference on the Vietnam War (1968-69). He also served as special envoy to Cyprus (1967) and Korea (1968). As President Carter's secretary of state, Vance opposed the 1980 attempt to rescue the American hostages in Iran and resigned after the mission failed. He subsequently served on several diplomatic missions, in particular as head of United Nations' efforts to negotiate an end to the violence following the dissolution of Yugoslavia (1991-92). At various times Vance also served on the boards of corporations, universities, foundations, and other organizations, and was chairman (1988-1990) of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

See his memoirs, Hard Choices (1983); study by D. S. McLellan (1985).

(born March 27, 1917, Clarksburg, W.Va., U.S.—died Jan. 12, 2002, New York, N.Y.) U.S. public official. After receiving his law degree from Yale University in 1942, he enlisted in the navy and served until 1946, when he joined a law firm in New York City. He was appointed general counsel for the U.S. Department of Defense in 1960. In 1962 he became secretary of the army, and in 1963 Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson named him deputy secretary of defense. Initially a vigorous supporter of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, his viewed changed after his resignation in 1967, and by 1968 he was urging Johnson to stop the bombing of North Vietnam. In that year he was sent to Paris with W. Averell Harriman to negotiate peace with the North Vietnamese. As secretary of state (1977–80) under Pres. Jimmy Carter, he worked to obtain the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II (SALT II) arms-control treaty and was instrumental in the Camp David accords. He resigned in 1980 in protest of Carter's plan to send a secret military mission to rescue American hostages held in Tehrān, Iran (see Iran hostage crisis).

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The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence.

History

On January 10, 1780, the Second Continental Congress created the Department of Foreign Affairs. On July 27, 1789, George Washington signed a congressional bill into law reauthorizing an executive Department of Foreign Affairs headed by a Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Congress then passed another law giving certain additional domestic responsibilities to the new Department and changing its name to the Department of State and the name of head of the department to the Secretary of State, and Washington approved this act on September 15, 1789. The new domestic duties assigned to the newly renamed department were receipt, publication, distribution, and preservation of laws of the United States, custody of the Great Seal of the United States, authentication of copies and preparation of commissions of executive branch appointments, and finally custody of the books, papers, and records of the Continental Congress including the Constitution itself and the Declaration of Independence.

The title of Secretary of State is British in origin. At the time of American independence, Britain had two secretaries of state. Both dealt with domestic affairs, but divided foreign affairs based on whether the country was Catholic or Protestant. By the end of the American Revolution, they were reorganized such that there was a Secretary of State for Home Affairs and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Thus, when the U.S. Secretary of Foreign Affairs was given domestic responsibilities, "Secretary of State" made sense in the historical context as the new name for the officer.

Particularly in the early years of the republic, the post was regarded as a natural stepping-stone to the Presidency. Secretaries of State who later occupied the White House included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan. Secretaries who unsuccessfully ran for President (either before or after their service at the State Department) were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, William H. Seward, James G. Blaine, Walter Q. Gresham, John Sherman, Elihu Root, William Jennings Bryan, Charles Evans Hughes and Edmund Muskie.

Functions

Most of the non-original domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, drafting of proclamations, and replies to inquiries. In accordance with the United States Constitution, the Secretary performs such duties as the President requires. These include negotiating with foreign representatives and instructing U.S. embassies or consulates abroad. The Secretary also serves as a principal adviser to the President in the determination of U.S. foreign policy and, in recent decades, has become responsible for overall direction, coordination, and supervision of interdepartmental activities of the U.S. Government overseas, excepting certain military activities.

As the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the Secretary of State is fourth in line to succeed the Presidency, coming after the Vice President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the President pro tempore of the Senate. (See United States presidential line of succession.)

Federal law provides that a presidential resignation must be accomplished by written communication from the President to the Secretary of State. This has occurred once, when President Richard Nixon resigned in August 1974 via a letter to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.

When there is a vacancy as Secretary, the office is exercised by another member of the cabinet, as was common in earlier history, or, in more recent times, by a subaltern official of the State Department until the President appoints and the United States Senate confirms a new Secretary.

List of Secretaries of State

# Picture Name State of Residence Term of Office President(s) served under
- John Jay
(acting)
New York September 26, 1789 - March 22, 1790 George Washington
1 Thomas Jefferson Virginia September 26, 1789 - December 31, 1793 George Washington
2 Edmund Jenings Randolph Virginia January 2, 1794 - August 20, 1795 George Washington
3 Timothy Pickering Massachusetts August 20 - December 10, 1795
(acting)
George Washington
John Adams
December 10, 1795 - May 12, 1800
- Charles Lee
(acting)
Virginia May 13, 1800 - June 5, 1800 John Adams
4 John Marshall Virginia June 13, 1800 - March 4, 1801 John Adams
- Levi Lincoln, Sr.
(acting)
Massachusetts March 5, 1801 - May 1, 1801 Thomas Jefferson
5 James Madison Virginia May 2, 1801 - March 3, 1809 Thomas Jefferson
6 Robert Smith Maryland March 6, 1809 - April 1, 1811 James Madison
7 James Monroe Virginia April 2, 1811 - September 30, 1814 James Madison
September 30, 1814 - February 28, 1815
(acting)
February 28, 1815 - March 3, 1817
- John Graham
(acting)
March 4 - 9, 1817 James Monroe
- Richard Rush
(acting)
Pennsylvania March 10 - September 22, 1817 James Monroe
8 John Quincy Adams Massachusetts March 5, 1817 - March 3, 1825 James Monroe
- Daniel Brent
(acting)
March 4 - 7, 1825 John Quincy Adams
9 Henry Clay Kentucky March 7, 1825 - March 3, 1829 John Quincy Adams
- James Alexander Hamilton
(acting)
New York March 4 - 27, 1829 Andrew Jackson
10 Martin Van Buren New York March 28, 1829 - May 23, 1831 Andrew Jackson
11 Edward Livingston Louisiana May 24, 1831 - May 29, 1833 Andrew Jackson
12 Louis McLane Delaware May 29, 1833 - June 30, 1834 Andrew Jackson
13 John Forsyth Georgia July 1, 1834 - March 3, 1841 Andrew Jackson
Martin Van Buren
- Jacob L. Martin
(acting)
March 4 - 5, 1841 William Henry Harrison
14 Daniel Webster Massachusetts March 6, 1841 - May 8, 1843 William Harrison
John Tyler
- Hugh S. Legaré
(acting)
South Carolina May 9, 1843 - June 20, 1843 John Tyler
- William S. Derrick
(acting)
June 21 - 23, 1843 John Tyler
15 Abel P. Upshur Virginia June 24 - July 23, 1843
(acting)
John Tyler
July 24, 1843 - February 28, 1844
- John Nelson
(acting)
Maryland February 29 - March 31, 1844 John Tyler
16 John Caldwell Calhoun South Carolina April 1, 1844 - March 10, 1845 John Tyler
17 James Buchanan Pennsylvania March 10, 1845 - March 7, 1849 James K. Polk
18 John Middleton Clayton Delaware March 8, 1849 - July 22, 1850 Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore
19 Daniel Webster Massachusetts July 23, 1850 - October 24, 1852 Millard Fillmore
- Charles M. Conrad
(acting)
Louisiana October 25 - November 5, 1852 Millard Fillmore
20 Edward Everett Massachusetts November 6, 1852 - March 3, 1853 Millard Fillmore
- William Hunter
(acting)
Rhode Island March 4 - 7, 1853 Franklin Pierce
21 William Learned Marcy New York March 7, 1853 - March 6, 1857 Franklin Pierce
22 Lewis Cass Michigan March 6, 1857 - December 14, 1860 James Buchanan
- William Hunter
(acting)
Rhode Island December 15 - 16, 1860 James Buchanan
23 Jeremiah Sullivan Black Pennsylvania December 17, 1860 - March 5, 1861 James Buchanan
24 William Henry Seward New York March 5, 1861 - March 4, 1869 Abraham Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
25 Elihu Benjamin Washburne Illinois March 5 - 16, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
26 Hamilton Fish New York March 17, 1869 - March 12, 1877 Ulysses S. Grant
27 William Maxwell Evarts New York March 12, 1877 - March 7, 1881 Rutherford B. Hayes
28 James Gillespie Blaine Maine March 7 - December 19, 1881 James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
29 Frederick Theodore
Frelinghuysen
New Jersey December 19, 1881 - March 6, 1885 Chester Arthur
30 Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. Delaware March 7, 1885 - March 6, 1889 Grover Cleveland
31 James Gillespie Blaine Maine March 7, 1889 - June 4, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
- William F. Wharton
(acting)
Massachusetts June 4 - 29, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
32 John Watson Foster Indiana June 29, 1892 - February 23, 1893 Benjamin Harrison
- William F. Wharton
(acting)
Massachusetts February 24 - March 6, 1893 Benjamin Harrison
Grover Cleveland
33 Walter Quintin Gresham Illinois March 7, 1893 - May 28, 1895 Grover Cleveland
- Edwin F. Uhl
(acting
Michigan May 28 - June 9, 1895 Grover Cleveland
34 Richard Olney Massachusetts June 10, 1895 - March 5, 1897 Grover Cleveland
35 John Sherman Ohio March 6, 1897 - April 27, 1898 William McKinley
- Alvey A. Adee
(acting)
New York September 17 - September 29, 1898 William McKinley
36 William Rufus Day Ohio April 28 - September 16, 1898 William McKinley
37 John Milton Hay District of Columbia September 30, 1898 - July 1, 1905 William McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
- Francis B. Loomis
(acting)
Ohio July 1 - July 18, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt
38 Elihu Root New York July 19, 1905 - January 27, 1909 Theodore Roosevelt
39 Robert Bacon New York January 27 - March 5, 1909 Theodore Roosevelt
40 Philander Chase Knox Pennsylvania March 6, 1909 - March 5, 1913 William Howard Taft
41 William Jennings Bryan Nebraska March 5, 1913 - June 9, 1915 Thomas Woodrow
Wilson
42 Robert Lansing New York June 9 - 23, 1915
(acting)
Thomas Woodrow
Wilson
June 24, 1915 - February 13, 1920
- Frank L. Polk
(acting)
New York February 14 - March 12, 1920 Thomas Woodrow
Wilson
43 Bainbridge Colby New York March 23, 1920 - March 4, 1921 Thomas Woodrow
Wilson
44 Charles Evans Hughes New York March 5, 1921 - March 4, 1925 Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
45 Frank Billings Kellogg Minnesota March 5, 1925 - March 28, 1929 Calvin Coolidge
Herbert Hoover
46 Henry Lewis Stimson New York March 28, 1929 - March 4, 1933 Herbert Hoover
47 Cordell Hull Tennessee March 4, 1933 - November 30, 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt
48 Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr. Virginia December 1, 1944 - June 27, 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
- Joseph C. Grew
(acting)
New Hampshire June 28 - July 3, 1945 Harry S. Truman
49 James Francis Byrnes South Carolina July 3, 1945 - January 21, 1947 Harry S. Truman
50 George Catlett Marshall, Jr. Pennsylvania January 21, 1947 - January 20, 1949 Harry S. Truman
51 Dean Gooderham Acheson Maryland January 21, 1949 - January 20, 1953 Harry S. Truman
- Harrison Freeman Matthews
(acting)
Maryland January 20 - 21, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower
52 John Foster Dulles New York January 21, 1953 - April 22, 1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower
53 Christian Archibald Herter Massachusetts April 22, 1959 - January 20, 1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Livingston T. Merchant
(acting)
District of Columbia January 20 - 21, 1961 John F. Kennedy
54 David Dean Rusk New York January 21, 1961 - January 20, 1969 John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
- Charles E. Bohlen
(acting)
January 20 - 22, 1969 Richard Nixon
55 William Pierce Rogers Maryland January 22, 1969 - September 3, 1973 Richard Nixon
- Kenneth Rush
(acting)
September 3 - 22, 1973 Richard Nixon
56 Henry Alfred Kissinger District of Columbia September 22, 1973 - January 20, 1977 Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
- Philip C. Habib
(acting)
California January 20 - 23, 1977 Jimmy Carter
57 Cyrus Roberts Vance New York January 23, 1977 - April 28, 1980 Jimmy Carter
- Warren Minor Christopher
(acting)
California April 28 - May 2, 1980 Jimmy Carter
- David Newsom
(acting)
May 2 - 3, 1980 Jimmy Carter
- Richard N. Cooper
(acting)
May 3, 1980 Jimmy Carter
- David Newsom
(acting)
May 3 - 4, 1980 Jimmy Carter
- Warren Minor Christopher
(acting)
California May 4 - 8, 1980 Jimmy Carter
58 Edmund Sixtus Muskie Maine May 8, 1980 - January 18, 1981 Jimmy Carter
59 Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. Connecticut January 22, 1981 - July 5, 1982 Ronald Reagan
- Walter J. Stoessel, Jr.
(acting)
California July 5 - 16, 1982 Ronald Reagan
60 George Pratt Shultz California July 16, 1982 - January 20, 1989 Ronald Reagan
- Michael H. Armacost
(acting)
Maryland January 20 - 25, 1989 George H. W. Bush
61 James Addison Baker III Texas January 25, 1989 - August 23, 1992 George H. W. Bush
62 Lawrence Sidney
Eagleburger
Florida August 23 - December 8, 1992
(acting)
George H. W. Bush
December 8, 1992 - January 19, 1993
- Arnold Lee Kanter
(acting)
Virginia January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton
- Frank G. Wisner
(acting)
January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton
63 Warren Minor Christopher California January 20, 1993 - January 17, 1997 Bill Clinton
64 Madeleine Korbel Albright District of Columbia January 23, 1997 - January 19, 2001 Bill Clinton
65 Colin Luther Powell Virginia January 20, 2001 - January 26, 2005 George W. Bush
66 Condoleezza Rice California Since January 26, 2005 George W. Bush

Notes

References

General

External links

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