Schrader valves are classified by their material, shape, length, and diameter of intended mounting hole (nominally between 8 mm and 16 mm).
Presta valves are normally only used on bicycles. The stem has a narrower diameter (nominally 6 mm) than the thinnest (nominally 8 mm) Schrader type, and so the bore of the hole in the rim through which the stem passes can be smaller.
Dunlop valves were once popular in Great Britain and Asia. They are still widely used on 28- and 27-inch tires in many countries (the Netherlands, Germany, Third World) on single-speed bikes for comfort riding in flat terrain.
Their bases are wider than Presta valves, but they can be pumped with Presta pumps. Pumps with a pincher-type connection however are the most common type used: the classic black pumps mounted on a wooden base. The classic pump does not allow for high pressures, 3.5 bar (50 psi) max.
Due to the construction, the Dunlop valve does not check the pressure. The actual valve can be replaced easily, without the need for special tools as with Schrader valves. This also allows use of a wide stem to fill the tube with a sealant that cures leaks while cycling.