Vallejo, César

Vallejo, César

Vallejo, César, 1895-1938, Peruvian poet. Vallejo was one of the most influential yet least imitated figures of modern Spanish-American letters. He identified himself with the sufferings of the underprivileged and dedicated himself to the cause of social progress. Himself a cholo—a mestizo of native and white origin—he was deeply distressed by the exploitation of indigenous people. His poems in Heraldos negros (1918) blend symbolism and caustic observation in terse classical form. He was imprisoned on false charges of political rebellion in 1920; in jail he wrote a part of Trilce (1922). The book is somber and tragic in tone and dramatically experimental in form. These early works mainly reflect his concern with Spanish-American subjects. In 1923 he went to Europe in self-imposed exile, espoused Marxist causes, and aligned himself with the Republicans in the Spanish civil war. He also wrote Tungsteno (1931), a moving novel about native peoples. Vallejo made a meager living from journalism and died in poverty. Two volumes of his work were published posthumously, Poemas humanos (1939) and España, aparta de mi este cáliz [Spain, let this cup pass from me] (1940). Both reflect his later concerns with European themes. His Complete Poetry, both in Spanish and in English translation, was published in 2007.
César-François Cassini de Thury, called Cassini III or Cassini de Thury, was a French astronomer and cartographer. He was born in Thury-sous-Clermont, (Oise), on June 17, 1714 and died of smallpox in Paris on September 4, 1784,


Cassini de Thury was the second son of Jacques Cassini and Suzanne Françoise Charpentier de Charmois. He was grandson of Giovanni Domenico Cassini, and would become the father of Jean-Dominique Cassini, Conte de Cassini.

In 1735, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences as a supernumerary adjunct astronomer, in 1741 as an adjunct astronomer and in 1745 as a full member astronomer.

He succeeded to his father’s official employments in 1756 and continued the hereditary surveying operations. In 1744, he began the construction of a great topographical map of France, one of the landmarks in the history of cartography.

The post of director of the Paris observatory was created for his benefit in 1771 when the establishment ceased to be a dependency of the French Academy of Sciences.

His chief works are: La méridienne de l’Observatoire Royal de Paris (1744), Description géometrique de la terre (1775), and Description géometrique de la France (1784), which was completed by his son.


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