Vaindloo has an area of 6.2 hectares and marks the northernmost point of the nation of Estonia, situated sixteen miles north of the Estonian mainland. The island is administered by the community of Vihula in Lääne-Viru County and is an important breeding sanctuary for such birds as the common tern, Arctic tern, Tengmalm's owl, great tit, purple sandpiper, shore lark, great grey shrike, yellowhammer and others.
Vaindloo is also notable for its functioning lighthouse, called the Vaindloo tuletorn, it was built in 1871 and is managed by the Estonian Maritime Administration. A previous lighthouse constructed of timber was erected on Vaindloo in 1718. In addition to the lighthouse, there is a station of the Estonian Border Guard with a 50 meter-high observation tower and a radar on the island.