Usakhal Khan

List of Chinese monarchs

The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way inclusive. From the Shang Dynasty to the Qin Dynasty, rulers usually held the title King (Chinese:Wáng). With the division of China into separate Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shi Huang created a new title for himself, that of Emperor (皇帝 Huángdì). This title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's Imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in kings lists.

Chinese monarchs were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names - for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing - but where possible the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

3 Sovereigns & 5 Emperors Period

Posthumous Name

Personal Name

Years of Reign

Fuxi Fuxi 2852 - 2737 BC
Yan Di Shennong 2737 - 2699 BC
Huang Di Gongsun or
Ji
2699 - 2588 BC
Shaohao 2587 - 2491 BC
Zhuanxu Gaoyang 2490 - 2413 BC

Ku or Diku 2412 - 2343 BC

Tang Yao or
Yaotang-shi
2333 - 2234 BC

Shun Youyu-shi 2233 - 2184 BC
Yu Rong Yu 2183 - 2177 BC

Xia Dynasty

Ca. 2070 - 1600 BC1

Reign name² Notes Name by which most commonly known
Also known as: Dà Yǔ, 大禹 Yu
Son of Yǔ: beginning of hereditary succession Qi
Tài Kāng 太康   Tai Kang
Zhòng Kāng 仲康   Zhong Kang
Xiāng   Xiang
Shào Kāng 少康   Shao Kang
Zhù   Zhu
Huái   Huai
Máng   Mang
Xie   Xie
Bù Jiàng 不降   Bu Jiang
Jiōng   Jiong
Jǐn   Jin
Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲   Kong Jia
Gāo   Gao
  Fa
Jié Also known as: Lǚ Gǔi, 履癸 Jie
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xià (夏), for example Xià Yǔ (夏禹).

Shang Dynasty

Ca. 1600 - 1046 BC1

Personal name Reign name² Temple name³ Reign years1 Name by which most commonly known
Zi Lü
子履
Tang
  1600 - 1300 BC Tang
Zi Sheng
子勝
Wai Bing
外丙
  Wai Bing
Zi Yong
子庸 
Zhong Ren
仲壬
  Zhong Ren
Zi Zhi
子至
Tai Jia
太甲
  Tai Jia
Zi Xun
子绚
Wo Ding
沃丁
  Wo Ding
Zi Bian
子辨
Tai Geng
太庚
  Tai Geng
Zi Gao
子高
Xiao Jia
小甲
  Xiao Jia
Zi Dian 子佃
or Zi Zhou 子伷
Yong Ji
雍己
  Yong Ji
Zi Mi 子密
or Zi Zhou 子伷
Tai Wu
太戊
  Tai Wu
Zi Zhuang 子庄 Zhong Ding
仲丁
  Zhong Ding
Zi Fa
子发
Wai Ren
外壬
  Wai Ren
Zi Zheng
子整
He Dan Jia
河亶甲
  He Dan Jia
Zi Teng
子滕
Zu Yi
祖乙
Zhong Zong
中宗
Zu Yi
Zi Dan
子旦
Zu Xin
祖辛
  Zu Xin
Zi Yu
子逾
Wo Jia
沃甲
  Wo Jia
Zi Xin
子新 
Zu Ding
祖丁
  Zu Ding
Zi Geng
子更
Nan Geng
南庚
  Nan Geng
Zi He
子和
Yang Jia
陽甲
  Yang Jia
Zi Xun
子旬
Pan Geng
盤庚
  1300 - 1251 BC Pan Geng4
Zi Song
子颂
Xiao Xin
小辛
  Xiao Xin
Zi Lian
子敛
Xiao Yi
小乙
  Xiao Yi
Zi Zhao
子昭
Wu Ding
武丁
Gao Zong
高宗
1250 - 1192 BC Wu Ding
Zi Yao
子曜
Zu Geng
祖庚
  1191 - 1148 BC Zu Geng
  Zu Jia
祖甲
  Zu Jia
  Lin Xin
廩辛
  Lin Xin
Zi Xiao
子嚣
Geng Ding
庚丁
Kang Ding
康丁
Kang Ding
Zi Qu
子瞿
Wu Yi
武乙
  1147 - 1113 BC Wu Yi
Zi Tuo
子托
Wen Ding5
文丁
  1112 - 1102 BC Wen Ding
Zi Xian
子羡
Di Yi
帝乙
  1101 - 1076 BC Di Yi
Zi Shou
子受
Di Xin
帝辛
  1075 - 1046 BC Di Xin
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project'', the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Shang (商), for example Shang Tang (商湯).
3 The name used in the oracle bone inscription records of ancestral sacrifice.
4 The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.
5 Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou Dynasty

Mid 11th century BC - 256 BC, traditionally divided into:

Personal name Posthumous name Reign years1 Name by which most commonly known
Ji Fa
姬發
Wuwang
武王
1046 - 1043 BC1 Zhou Wuwang
(King Wu of Zhou)
Ji Song
姬誦
Chengwang
成王
1042 - 1021 BC1 Zhou Chengwang
(King Cheng of Zhou)
Ji Zhao
姬釗
Kangwang
康王
1020 - 996 BC1 Zhou Kangwang
(King Kang of Zhou)
Ji Xia
姬瑕
Zhaowang
昭王
995 - 977 BC1 Zhou Zhaowang
(King Zhao of Zhou)
Ji Man
姬滿
Muwang
穆王
976 - 922 BC1 Zhou Muwang
(King Mu of Zhou)
Ji Yihu
姬繄扈
Gongwang
共王
922 - 900 BC1 Zhou Gongwang
(King Gong of Zhou)
Ji Jian
姬囏
Yiwang
懿王
899 - 892 BC1 Zhou Yiwang
(King Yi of Zhou)
Ji Pifang
姬辟方
Xiaowang
孝王
891 - 886 BC1 Zhou Xiaowang
(King Xiao of Zhou)
Ji Xie
姬燮
Yiwang
夷王
885 - 878 BC1 Zhou Yiwang
(King Yi of Zhou)
Ji Hu
姬胡
Liwang
厲王
877 - 841 BC1 Zhou Liwang
(King Li of Zhou)
  Gonghe (regency)
共和
841 - 828 BC Gonghe
Ji Jing
姬靜
Xuanwang
宣王
827 - 782 BC Zhou Xuanwang
(King Xuan of Zhou)
Ji Gongsheng
姬宮湦
Youwang
幽王
781 - 771 BC Zhou Youwang
(King You of Zhou)
Ji Yijiu
姬宜臼
Pingwang
平王
770 - 720 BC Zhou Pingwang
(King Ping of Zhou)
Ji Lin
姬林
Huanwang
桓王
719 - 697 BC Zhou Huanwang
(King Huan of Zhou)
Ji Tuo
姬佗
Zhuangwang
莊王
696 - 682 BC Zhou Zhuangwang
(King Zhuang of Zhou)
Ji Huqi
姬胡齊
Xiwang
釐王
681 - 677 BC Zhou Xiwang
(King Xi of Zhou)
Ji Lang
姬閬
Huiwang
惠王
676 - 652 BC Zhou Huiwang
(King Hui I of Zhou)
Ji Zheng
姬鄭
Xiangwang
襄王
651 - 619 BC Zhou Xiangwang
(King Xiang of Zhou)
Ji Renchen
姬壬臣
Qingwang
頃王
618 - 613 BC Zhou Qingwang
(King Qing of Zhou)
Ji Ban
姬班
Kuangwang
匡王
612 - 607 BC Zhou Kuangwang
(King Kuang of Zhou)
Ji Yu
姬瑜
Dingwang
定王
606 - 586 BC Zhou Dingwang
(King Ding of Zhou)
Ji Yi
姬夷
Jianwang
簡王
585 - 572 BC Zhou Jianwang
(King Jian of Zhou)
Ji Xiexin
姬泄心
Lingwang
靈王
571 - 545 BC Zhou Lingwang
(King Ling of Zhou)
Ji Gui
姬貴
Jingwang
景王
544 - 521 BC Zhou Jingwang
(King Jing of Zhou)
Ji Meng
姬猛
Daowang
悼王
520 BC Zhou Daowang
(King Dao of Zhou)
Ji Gai
姬丐
Jingwang
敬王
519 - 476 BC Zhou Jingwang
(King Jing of Zhou)
Ji Ren
姬仁
Yuanwang
元王
475 - 469 BC Zhou Yuanwang
(King Yuan of Zhou)
Ji Jie
姬介
Zhendingwang
貞定王
468 - 442 BC Zhou Zhendingwang
(King Zhending of Zhou)
Ji Quji
姬去疾
Aiwang
哀王
441 BC Zhou Aiwang
(King Ai of Zhou)
Ji Shu
姬叔
Siwang
思王
441 BC Zhou Siwang
(King Si of Zhou)
Ji Wei
姬嵬
Kaowang
考王
440 - 426 BC Zhou Kaowang
(King Kao of Zhou)
Ji Wu
姬午
Weiliewang
威烈王
425 - 402 BC Zhou Weiliewang
(King Weilie of Zhou)
Ji Jiao
姬驕
Anwang
安王
401 - 376 BC Zhou Anwang
(King An of Zhou)
Ji Xi
姬喜
Liewang
烈王
375 - 369 BC Zhou Liewang
(King Lie of Zhou)
Ji Bian
姬扁
Xianwang
顯王
368 - 321 BC Zhou Xianwang
(King Xian of Zhou)
Ji Ding
姬定
Shenjingwang
慎靚王
320 - 315 BC Zhou Shenjingwang
(King Shenjing of Zhou)
Ji Yan
姬延
Nanwang
赧王
314 - 256 BC Zhou Nanwang
(King Nan of Zhou)
  Huiwang
惠王
255 - 249 BC Zhou Huiwang²
(King Hui II of Zhou)
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed King Hui as King Nan's successor after their capital, Luoyang, fell to Qin forces in 256 BC. However Zhou resistance did not last long in the face of the Qin advance and so King Nan is widely considered to have been the last emperor of the Zhou dynasty.

Qin Dynasty

Sovereigns of the Qin Dynasty 221 - 207 BC
Posthumous Names (Shì Hào 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
Convention: "Qin" + posthumous name
Note: King Zhaoxiang of Qin (秦昭襄王, Qín Zhāoxiāng Wáng) had already been ruling Qin for 51 years when the Qin state annihilated the Zhou Dynasty; however, the other six warring states were still independent regimes. Historiographers thus used the next year (the 52nd year of Qin Zhaoshang Wang) as the official continuation from the Zhou Dynasty, therefore, so should we. Qin Shi Huang was the first Chinese sovereign proclaiming himself "Emperor".
始皇帝 Shǐ Huángdì 嬴政 Yíng Zhèng 246 - 210 BC
二世皇帝 Èr Shì Huángdì 嬴胡亥 Yíng Húhài 209 - 207 BC
Ziying can be referred to using either his personal name or Qín Wáng Ziyīng (秦王子嬰)
三世皇帝 Qin San Shi 嬴子嬰 Yíng Ziyīng 207 BC

Han Dynasty

Three Kingdoms Period

Three Kingdoms Sovereigns
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Wei or Cao Wei 220-265 AD
Convention: "Wei" + posthumous name, sometimes except Cao Pi who was referred using personal names.
Wen Di (文帝 wen2 di4) 曹丕 Cao Pi 220-226 Huangchu (黃初 huang2 chu1) 220-226
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) 曹叡 Cao Rui 226-239 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 227-233
Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 233-237
Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 237-239
Qi Wang (齊王 qi2 wang2) 曹芳 Cao Fang 239-254 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 240-249
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 249-254
Gao Gui Xiang Gong (高貴鄉公 gao1 gui4 xiang1 gong1) 曹髦 Cao Mao 254-260 Zhengyuan (正元 zheng4 yuan2) 254-256
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 256-260
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) 曹奐 Cao Huan 260-265 Jingyuan (景元 jing3 yuan2) 260-264
Xianxi (咸熙 xian2 xi1) 264-265
Shu or Shu Han 221 - 263
Convention: use personal name
Zhao Lie Di (昭烈帝 zhao1 lie4 di4) 劉備 Liu Bei 221-223 Zhangwu (章武 zhang1 wu3) 221-223
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 劉禪 Liu Shan 223-263 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 223-237
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 238-257
Jingyao (景耀 jing3 yao4) 258-263
Yanxing (炎興 yan2 xing1) 263
Wu 222-280
Convention: use personal name
Da Di (大帝 da4 di4) 孫權 Sun Quan 222-252 Huangwu (黃武 huang2 wu3) 222-229
Huanglong (黃龍 huang2 long2) 229-231
Jiahe (嘉禾 jia1 he2) 232-238
Chiwu (赤烏 chi4 wu1) 238-251
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 251-252
Shenfeng (神鳳 shen2 feng4) 252
Kuai ji wang (會稽王 kuai4 ji1 wang2) 孫亮 Sun Liang 252-258 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 252-253
Wufeng (五鳳 wu3 feng4) 254-256
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 256-258
Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Sun Xiu 孫休 Sun Xiu 258-264 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 258-264
Wu Cheng Hou (烏程侯 wu1 cheng2 hou2) Sun Hao 孫皓 Sun Hao 264-280 Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 264-265
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 265-266
Baoding (寶鼎 bao3 ding3) 266-269
Jianheng (建衡 jian4 heng2) 269-271
Fenghuang (鳳凰 feng4 huang2) 272-274
Tiance (天冊 tian1 ce4) 275-276
Tianxi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 276
Tianji (天紀 tian1 ji4) 277-280

Jin Dynasty

Jin Dynasty (265-420) Sovereigns
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + posthumous name
Xi (Western) Jin Dynasty 265-317
Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Sima Yan 司馬炎 si1 ma3 yan2 265-290 Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 265-274
Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2)275-280
Taikang (太康 tai4 kang1) 280-289
Taixi (太熙 tai4 xi1) 290
Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) 司馬衷 si1 ma3 zhong1 290-306 Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 290
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping) 291
Yuankang (元康 yuan2 kang1) 291-299
Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 300-301
Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 301-302
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 302-303
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 304
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 304-306
Guangxi (光熙 guang1 xi1) 306
Huai Di (懷帝 huai2 di4) 司馬熾 si1 ma3 chi4 307-311 Yongjia (永嘉 yong3 jia1) 307-313
Min Di(愍帝 min3 di4) 司馬鄴 si1 ma3 ye4 313-317 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 313-317
Dong (Eastern) Jin Dynasty 317 AD - 420 AD
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) 司馬睿 si1 ma3 rui4 317-322 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 317-318
Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 318-321
Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 321-322
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) 司馬紹 si1 ma3 shao4 322-325 Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 322-323
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 323-325
Cheng Di (成帝 cheng2 di4) 司馬衍 si1 ma3 yan3 325-342 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 325
Xianhe (咸和 xian2 he2) 326-334
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 335-342
Kang Di (康帝 kang1 di4) 司馬岳 si1 ma3 yue4 342-344 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 343-344
Mu Di (穆帝 mu4 di4) 司馬聃 si1 ma3 dan1 345-361 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 345-356
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357-361
Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) 司馬丕 si1 ma3 pi1 361-365 Longhe (隆和 long2 he2) 362-363
Xingning (興寧 xing1 ning2) 363-365
Fei Di (海西公 hai3 xi1 gong1) 司馬奕 si1 ma3 yi4 365-371 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 365-371
Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) 司馬昱 si1 ma3 yu4 371-372 Xianan (咸安 xian2 an1) 371-372
Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4) 司馬曜 si1 ma3 yao4 372-396 Ningkang (寧康 ning2 kang1) 373-375
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 376-396
An Di (安帝 an1 di4) 司馬德宗 si1 ma3 de2 zong1 396-418 Longan (隆安 long2 an1) 397-401
Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 402-404
Yixi (義熙 yi4 xi1) 405-418
Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) 司馬德文 si1 ma3 de2 wen2 419-420 Yuanxi (元熙 yuan2 xi1) 419-420

Sixteen Kingdoms Period

Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Han Zhao Empire 304-329 AD (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han Empire and Former Zhao Empire)
Han Empire 304-318
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Guang Wen Di (光文帝 guang1 wen2 di4) 劉淵 liu2 yuan1 304-310 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 304-308
Yongfeng (永鳳 yong3 feng4) 308-309
Herui (河瑞 he2 rui4) 309-310
Did not exist Liang Wang (梁王 liang2 wang2) 劉和 liu2 he2 7 days in 310 Did not exist
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) 劉聰 liu2 cong1 310-318 Guangxing (光興 guang1 xing1) 310-311
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 311-315
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 315-316
Linjia (麟嘉 lin2 jia1) 316-318
Did not exist Yin Di (隱帝 yin3 di4) 劉粲 liu2 can4 a month and days in 318 Hanchang (漢昌 han4 chang1) 318
Qian (Former) Zhao Empire 318-329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 劉曜 liu2 yao4 318-329 Guangchu (光初 guang1 chu1) 318-329
Hou (Later) Zhao Empire 319 - 351
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) 石勒 shi2 le4 319-333 Zhaowang (趙王 zhao4 wang2) 319-328
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 328-330
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 330-333
Did not exist Hai Yang Wang (海陽王 hai3 yang2 wang2) 石弘 shi2 hong2 333-334 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 333
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 334
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) 石虎 shi2 hu3 334-349 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 334-349
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 349
Did not exist Qiao Wang (譙王 qiao2 wang2) 石世 shi2 shi4 73 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 73 days in 349
Did not exist Pang Cheng Wang (彭城王 pang2 cheng2 wang2) 石遵 shi2 zun1 183 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 183 days in 349
Did not exist Yi Yang Wang (義陽王 yi4 yang2 wang2) 石鑒 shi2 jian4 103 days within 349-350 Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 103 days within 349-350
Did not exist Xin Xing Wang (新興王 xin1 xing1 wang2) 石祗 shi2 zhi1 350-351 Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 349-350
Cheng Han Empire 303-347 AD (addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng Empire and Han Empire)
Cheng Empire 303-338
Shi Zu (始祖 shi3 zu3) or Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) 李特 li3 te4 303 Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) or Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 303
Did not exist Qin Wen Wang (秦文王 qin2 wen2 wang2) 李流 li3 liu2 several months in 303 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) 李雄 li3 xiong2 303-334 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 303-305
Yanping (晏平 yan4 ping2) 305-311
Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 311-334
Did not exist Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 si4) 李班 li3 ban1 7 months in 334 Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 7 months in 334
Did not exist You Gong (幽公 you1 gong1) 李期 li3 qi1 334-338 Yuheng (玉恆 yu4 heng2) 334-338
Han Empire 338-347
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) 李壽 li3 shou4 338-343 Hanxing (漢興 han4 xing1) 338-343
Did not exist Gui Yi Hou (歸義侯 gui1 yi4 hou2) 李勢 li3 shi4 343-347 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 343-346
Jianing (嘉寧 jia1 ning2) 346-347
Qian (Former) Yan Empire 337-370
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Ming Di (文明帝 wen2 ming2 di4) 慕容皝 mu4 rong2 huang3 337-348 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 337-348
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Jing Zhao Di (景昭帝 jing3 zhao1 di4) 慕容俊 mu4 rong2 jun4 348-360 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 348-353
Yuanxi (元璽 yuan2 xi3) 353-357
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357
Guangshou (光壽 gunag1 shou4) 357-360
Did not exist You Di (幽帝 you1 di4) 慕容暐 mu4 rong2 wei3 360-370 Jianxi (建熙 jian4 xi1) 360-365
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-370
Hou (Later) Yan Empire 384-407
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4) 慕容垂 mu4 rong2 chui2 384-396 Yanyuan (燕王 yan4 wang2) 384-385
Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 386-396
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Hui Min Di (惠愍帝 hui4 min3 di4) 慕容寶 mu4 rong2 bao3 396-398 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 396-398
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) 慕容盛 mu4 rong2 sheng4 398-401 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 398
Changluo (長樂 chang2 le4) 399-401
Did not exist Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) 慕容熙 mu4 rong2 xi1 401-407 Guangshi (光始 guang1 shi3) 401-406
Jianshi (建始 jian4 shi3) 407
Nan (Southern) Yan Empire 398-410
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Xian Wu Di (獻武帝 xian4 wu3 di4) 慕容德 mu4 rong2 de2 398-405 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 398-400
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 400-405
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 慕容超 mu4 rong2 chao1 405-410 Taishang (太上 tai4 shang4) 405-410
Bei (Northern) Yan Empire 407-436
Did not exist Hui Yi Di (惠懿帝 hui4 yi4 di4) 高雲 gao1 yun2 407-409 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 407-409
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4) 馮跋 feng2 ba2 409-430 Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 409-430
Did not exist Zhao Cheng Di (昭成帝 zhao1 cheng2 di4) 馮弘 feng2 hong2 430-436 Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 430-436
Qian (Former) Liang Kingdom 320-376
Did not exist Cheng Gong (成公 cheng2 gong1) 張茂 zhang1 mao4 320-324 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 320-324
Did not exist Zhong Cheng Gong (忠成公 zhong1 cheng2 gong1) 張駿 zhang1 jun4 324-346 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 324-346
Did not exist Huan Gong (桓公 huan2 gong1) 張重華 zhang1 chong2 hua2 346-353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 346-353
Did not exist Ai Gong (哀公 ai1 gong1) 張曜靈 zhang1 yao4 ling2 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353
Did not exist Wei Wang (威王 wei1 wang2) 張祚 zhang1 zuo4 353-355 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353-354
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 354-355
Did not exist Jing Dao Gong (敬悼公 jing4 dao4 gong1) or Chong Gong (沖公 chong1 gong1) 張玄靖 zhang1 xuan2 jing4 355-363 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 355-361
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 361-363
Did not exist Dao Gong (悼公 dao4 gong1) 張天錫 zhang1 tian1 xi2 364-376 Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 364-376
Hou (Later) Liang Kingdom 386 AD - 403 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Yi Wu Wang (懿武王 yi4 wu3 wang2) 呂光 uu3 guang1 386-399 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 386-389
Lunjia (麟嘉 lun2 jia1) 389-396
Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 396-399
Did not exist Yin Wang (隱王 yin3 wang2) 呂紹 luu3 shao4 399 Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 399
Did not exist Ling Wang (靈王 ling2 wang2) 呂纂 luu3 zuan3 399-401 Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2) 399-401
Did not exist Shang Shu Gong (尚書公 shang4 shu1 gong1) or Jiankang Gong (建康公 jian4 kang1 gong1) 呂隆 luu3 long2 401-403 Shending (神鼎 shen2 ding3) 401-403
Nan (Southern) Liang Kingdom 397 AD - 414 AD
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Wu Wang (武王 wu3 wang2) 禿髮烏孤 tu1 fa3 wu1 gu1 397-399 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 397-399
Did not exist Kang Wang (康王 kang1 wang2) 禿髮利鹿孤 tu1 fa3 li4 lu4 gu1 399-402 Jianhe (建和 jian4 he2) 399-402
Did not exist Jing Wang (景王 jing3 wang2) or Jing Wang (敬王 jing4 wang2) 禿髮傉檀 tu1 fa3 li4 ru4 tan2 402-414 Hongchang (弘昌 hong2 chang1) 402-404
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 409-414
Bei (Northern) Liang Kingdom 397-439 (as Kings of Gao Chang 442-460)
Did not exist Did not exist 段業 duan4 ye4 397-401 Shen Xi (神璽 shen2 xi3) 397-399
Tian Xi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 399-401
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Xuan Wang (武宣王 wu3 xuan1 wang2) 沮渠蒙遜 ju3 qu2 meng2 xun4 401-433 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 401-412
Xuanshi (玄始 xuan2 shi3) 412-428
Chengxuan (承玄 cheng2 xuan2) 428-430
Yihe (義和 yi4 he2) 430-433
Did not exist Ai Wang (哀王 ai1 wang2) 沮渠牧犍 ju3 qu2 mu4 jian1 433-439 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 433-439
Did not exist Did not exist 沮渠無諱 ju3 qu2 wu2 hui4 442-444 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 442-443
Qianshou (乾壽 qian2 shou4) 443-444
Did not exist Did not exist 沮渠安周 ju3 qu2 an1 zhou1 444-460 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 444-460
Xi (Western) Liang Kingdom 400-421
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Wang (武昭王 wu3 zhao1 wang2) 李暠 li3 gao3 400-417 Gengzi (庚子 geng1 zi5) 400-405
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 406-416
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 李歆 li3 xin1 417-420 Jiaxing (嘉興 jia1 xing1) 417-420
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 李恂 li3 xun2 420-421 Yongjian (永建 yong3 jian4) 420-421
Qian Former Qin Empire 351 AD - 394 AD
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Jing Ming Di (景明帝 jing3 ming2 di4) 苻健 fu2 jian4 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 351-355
Did not exist Li Wang (厲王 li4 wang2) 苻生 fu2 sheng1 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 shou4 guang1) 355-357
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Xuan Zhao Di (宣昭帝 xuan1 zhao1 di4) 苻堅 fu2 jian1 357-385 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 357-359
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-385
Did not exist Ai Ping Di (哀平帝 ai1 ping2 di4) 苻丕 fu2 pi1 385-386 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 385-386
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Gao Di (高帝 gao1 di4) 苻登 fu2 deng1 386-394 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 385-394
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 苻崇 fu2 chong2 several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 yan2 chu1) 394
Hou (Later) Qin Empire 384 AD - 417 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Di (武昭帝 wu3 zhao1 di4) 姚萇 yao2 chang2 384-393 Bai Que (白雀 bai2 que4) 384-386
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 386-393
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wen Huan Di (文桓帝 wen2 huan2 di4) 姚興 yao2 xing1 394-416 Huangchu (皇初 huang2 chu1) 394-399
Hongshi (弘始 hong2 shi3) 399-416
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 姚泓 yao2 hong2 416-417 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 416-417
Xi (Western) Qin Kingdom 385-400,409-431
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Xuan Lie Wang (宣烈王 xuan1 lie4 wang2) 乞伏國仁 qi3 fu2 guo2 ren2 385-388 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 385-388
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wu Yuan Wang (武元王 wu3 yuan2 wang2) 乞伏乾歸 qi3 fu2 gan1 gui1 388-400,409-412 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 388-400
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 409-412
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Zhao Wang (文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2) 乞伏熾磐 qi3 fu2 chi4 pan2 412-428 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 412-419
Jianhong (建弘 jian4 hong2) 420-428
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) 乞伏暮末 qi3 fu2 mu4 mo4 428-431 Yonghong (永弘 yong3 hong2) 428-431
Xia Empire 407-431
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Lie Di (武烈帝 wu3 lie4 di4) 赫連勃勃 he4 lian2 bo2 bo2 407-425 Longsheng (龍升 long2 sheng1) 407-413
Fengxiang (鳳翔 feng4 xiang2) 413-418
Changwu (昌武 chang1 wu3) 418-419
Zhenxing (真興 chen1 xing1) 419-425
Did not exist Qin Wang (秦王 qin2 wang2) 赫連昌 he4 lian2 chang1 425-428 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 425-428
Did not exist Ping Yuan Wang (平原王 ping2 yuan2 wang2) 赫連定 he4 lian2 ding4 428-431 Shengguang (勝光 sheng4 guang1) 425-428

Sovereignties established by Wu Hu

Sovereignties established by Chinese and Wu Hu but traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Ran Wei Kingdom 350-352 (addressed as Wei Kingdom in traditional texts)
Wu Dao Tian Wang (武道天王 wu3 dao4 tian1 wang2) 冉閔 ran3 min3 350-352 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 350-352
Xi (Western) Yan Empire 384-394
Wei Di (威帝 wei1 di4) 慕容泓 mu4 rong2 hong2 384 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384
Did not exist 慕容沖 mu4 rong2 chong1 384-386 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384-385
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 385-386
Did not exist 段隨 duan4 sui2 386 Changping (昌平 chang1 ping2) 386
Did not exist 慕容韜 mu4 rong2 tao1 386 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 386
Did not exist 慕容瑤 mu4 rong2 yao2 386 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 386
Did not exist 慕容忠 mu4 rong2 zhong1 386 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 386
Did not exist 慕容永 mu4 rong2 yong3 386-394 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 386-394
Shu Kingdom 405-413
Cheng Du Wang (成都王 cheng2 du1 wang2) 譙縱 qiao2 zong4 405-413 Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe (mid-3rd century-391 )
Did not exist 劉去卑 liu2 qu4 bei1 mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 劉誥升爰 liu2 gao4 sheng1 yuan2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 劉虎 liu2 hu3 early 4th century (309?) - 341 Did not exist
Did not exist 劉務恒 liu2 wu4 heng2 341-356 Did not exist
Did not exist 劉閼陋頭 liu2 e4 lou4 tou2 356-358 Did not exist
Did not exist 劉悉勿祈 liu2 xi1 wu4 qi2 358-359 Did not exist
Did not exist 劉衛辰 liu2 wei4 chen2 359-391 Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe (late-3rd century-345 )
Did not exist 宇文莫槐 yu3 wen2 mo4 huai2 late 3rd century-293 Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文普回 yu3 wen2 pu3 hui2 or Yuwen Pu Bo|宇文普撥 yu3 wen2 pu3 bo1 293-late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文丘不勤 yu3 wen2 qiu1 bu4 qin2 late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文莫圭 yu3 wen2 mo4 gui1 late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文悉獨官 yu3 wen2 xi1 du2 guan1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文乞得歸 yu3 wen2 qi3 de5 gui1 early 3rd century - 333 Did not exist
Did not exist 宇文逸豆歸 yu3 wen2 yi4 dou4 gui1 333-345 Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 303-338
Did not exist 段務勿塵 duan4 wu4 wu4 chen2 303-310 or 311 Did not exist
Did not exist 段疾陸眷 duan4 ji2 lu4 juan4 310 or 311 - 318 Did not exist
Did not exist 段涉復辰 duan4 she4 fu4 chen2 318 Did not exist
Did not exist 段匹磾 duan4 pi3 di1 318-321 Did not exist
Did not exist 段末柸 duan4 mo4 pei1 318-325 Did not exist
Did not exist 段牙 duan4 ya2 325 Did not exist
Did not exist 段遼 duan4 liao2 326-338 Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid 6th century (555?) )
First Phase of Chouchi (late 2nd century-371)
Did not exist 楊騰 yang2 teng2 late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 楊駒 yang2 ju1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 楊千萬 yang2 qian1 wan4 early 3rd century - mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 楊飛龍 yang2 fei1 long2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist 楊茂搜 yang2 mao4 sou1 late 3rd century - 317 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊難敵 yang2 nan2 di2 317-334 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊毅 yang2 yi4 334-337 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊初 yang2 chu1 337-355 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊國 yang2 guo2 355-356 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊俊 yang2 jun4 356-360 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊世 yang2 shi4 360-370 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊篡 yang2 cuan4 370-371 Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 385-473
武王 wu3 wang2 楊定 yang2 ding4 385-394 Did not exist
惠文王 hui4 wen2 wang2 楊盛 yang2 sheng4 394-425 Did not exist
孝昭王 xiao4 zhao1 wang2 楊玄 yang2 xuan2 425-429 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊保宗 yang2 bao3 zong1 429 and 443 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊難當 yang2 nan2 dang1 429-441 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 436-440
Did not exist 楊保熾 yang2 bao3 chi4 442-443 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊文德 yang2 wen2 de2 443-454 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊元和 yang2 yuan2 he2 455-466 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊僧嗣 yang2 seng1 si4 466-473 Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 473-506 and 534-555
Did not exist 楊文度 yang2 wen2 du4 473-477 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊文弘 yang2 wen2 hong2 477-482 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊後起 yang2 hou4 qi3 482-486 Did not exist
An Wang (安王 an1 wang2) 楊集始 yang2 ji2 shi3 482-503 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊紹先 yang2 shao4 xian1 503-506, 534-535 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊智慧 yang2 zhi4 hui4 535-545 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊辟邪 yang2 bi4 xie2 545-553 Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhi Hui and Yang Bi Xie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 477- mid 6th century
Did not exist 楊廣香 yang2 guang3 xiang1 477-483? Did not exist
Did not exist 楊炯 yang2 jiong3 483-495 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊崇祖 yang2 chong2 zu3 495-before 502 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊孟孫 yang2 meng4 sun1 before 502-511 Did not exist
Did not exist 楊定 yang2 ding4 511- ? Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 219-377 (as Kings of Dai 305?-377)
As a well known fact, Tuoba Family was the ruling family of Northern Wei Dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence Table of Northern Wei Dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wang2) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
神元王 shen2 yuan2 wang2 拓拔力微 tou4 ba2 li4 wei2 219-277 Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu|始祖 shi2 zu3. Another column was not created since only he was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
章王 zhang1 wang2 拓拔悉鹿 tou4 ba2 xi1 lu4 277-286 Did not exist
平王 ping2 wang2 拓拔綽 tou4 ba2 chuo4 286-293 Did not exist
思王 si1 wang2 拓拔弗 tou4 ba2 fu2 293-294 Did not exist
昭王 zhao1 wang2 拓拔祿官 tou4 ba2 lu4 guan1 294-307 Did not exist
穆王 mu4 wang2 拓拔猗 (㐌 - 拖 without 手) tou4 ba2 yi1 yi2 295-305 Did not exist
穆王 mu4 wang2 拓拔猗盧 tou4 ba2 yi1 lu2 295-316 Did not exist
Did not exist 拓拔普根 tou4 ba2 pu3 gen1 316 Did not exist
Did not exist 拓拔? tou4 ba2 ? 316 Did not exist
平文王 ping2 wen2 wang2 拓拔鬱律 tou4 ba2 yu4 luu4 316-321 Did not exist
惠王 hui4 wang2 拓拔賀傉 tou4 ba2 he4 ru4 321-325 Did not exist
煬王 yang2 wang2 拓拔紇那 tou4 ba2 he2 na3 325-329 and 335-337 Did not exist
烈王 lie4 wang2 拓拔翳槐 tou4 ba2 yi4 huai2 329-335 and 337-338 Did not exist
昭成王 zhao1 cheng2 wang2 拓拔什翼健 tou4 ba2 shi2 yi4 jian4 338-377 Jianguo (建國 jian4 guo2) 338-377

Northern and Southern Dynasties

Sovereigns in the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Northern dynasty
Bei Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to 元(yuan2) during the reign of Xiao Wen Di in 496 so we will also change from there.
道武帝 dao4 wu3 di4 拓拔珪 tou4 ba2 gui1 386-409 Dengguo (登國 deng1 guo2) 386-396
Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 396-398
Tianxing (天興 tian1 xing1) 398-404
Tianci (天賜 tian1 ci4) 404-409
明元帝 ming2 yuan2 di4 拓拔嗣 tou4 ba2 si4 409-423 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 409-413
Shenrui (神瑞 shen2 rui4) 414-416
Taichang (泰常 tai4 chang2) 416-423
太武帝 tai4 wu3 di4 拓拔燾 tou4 ba2 tao2 424-452 Shiguang (始光 shi3 guang1) 424-428
Shenjia (神麚 shen2 jia1) 428-431
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 432-434
Taiyan (太延 tai4 yan2) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tai4 ping2 zhen1 jun1) 440-451
Zhengping (正平 zheng4 ping2) 451-452
南安王 nan2 an1 wang2 拓拔余 tou4 ba2 yu2 452 Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) or Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 452
文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4 拓拔濬 tou4 ba2 jun4 452-465 Xingan (興安 xing1 an1) 452-454
Xingguang (興光 xing1 guang1) 454-455
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 455-459
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 460-465
獻文帝 xian4 wen2 di4 拓拔弘 tou4 ba2 hong2 466-471 Tianan (天安 tian1 an1) 466-467
Huangxing (皇興 huang2 xing1) 467-471
孝文帝 xiao4 wen2 di4 元宏 yuan2 hong2 471-499 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 471-476
Chengming (承明 cheng2 ming2) 476
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 477-499
宣武帝 xuan1 wu3 di4 元恪 yuan2 ke4 500-515 Jingming (景明 jing3 ming2) 500-503
Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 504-508
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 508-512
Yanchang (延昌 yan2 chang1) 512-515
孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 元詡 yuan2 xu3 516-528 Xiping (熙平 xi1 ping2) 516-518
Shengui (神龜 shen2 gui1) 518-520
Zhengguang (正光 zheng4 guang1) 520-525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiao4 chang1) 525-527
Wutai (武泰 wu3 tai4) 528
孝莊帝 xiao4 zhuang1 di4 元子攸 yuan2 zi5 you1 528-530 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 528
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 528-530
長廣王 chang2 guang3 wang2 or Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 元曄 yuan2 ye4 530-531 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 530-531
節閔帝 jie2 min3 di4 元恭 yuan2 gong1 531-532 Putai (普泰 pu3 tai4) 531-532
安定王 an1 ding4 wang2 or Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 元朗 yuan2 lang3 531-532 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 531-532
孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 元脩 yuan2 xiu1 532-535 Taichang (太昌 tai4 chang1) 532
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 532
Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 532-535
Dong (Eastern) Wei Dynasty 534-550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name
孝靜帝 xiao1 jing4 di4 元善見 yuan2 shan4 jian4 534-550 Tianping (天平 tian1 ping2) 534-537
Yuanxiang (元象 yuan2 xiang4) 538-539
Xinghe (興和 xing1 he2) 539-542
Wuding (武定 wu3 ding4) 543-550
Bei (Northern) Qi Dynasty 550-577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name
文宣帝 wen2 xuan1 di4 高洋 gao1 yang2 550-559 Tianbao (天保 tain1 bao3) 550-559
廢帝 fei4 di4 高殷 gao1 yin1 560 Qianming (乾明 qian1 ming2) 560
孝昭帝 xiao1 zhao1 di4 高演 gao1 yan3 560-561 Huangjian (皇建 huang2 jian4) 560-561
武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4 高湛 gao1 zhan4 561-565 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 561-562
Heqing (河清 he2 qing1) 562-565
後主 hou4 zhu3 高緯 gao1 wei3 565-577 Tiantong (天統 tian1 tong3) 565-569
Wuping (武平 wu3 ping2) 570-576
Longhua (隆化 long2 hua3 576
幼主 you4 zhu3 高恆 gao1 heng2 577 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 577
范陽王 fan4 yang2 wang2 高紹義 gao1 shao4 yi4 577-579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei Dynasty 535-556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name
文帝 wen2 di4 元寶炬 yuan2 bao3 ju4 535-551 Datong (大統 da4 tong3) 535-551
廢帝 fei4 di4 元欽 yuan2 qin1 552-554 Did not exist
恭帝 gong1 di4 元廓 yuan2 kuo4 554-556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou Dynasty 557-581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name
孝閔帝 xiao1 min3 di4 宇文覺 yu3 wen2 jue2 557 Did not exist
明帝 ming2 di4 or Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 宇文毓 yu3 wen2 yu4 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng2) 559-560
武帝 wu3 di4 宇文邕 yu3 wen2 yong1 561-578 Baoding (保定 bao3 ding4) 561-565
Tianhe (天和 tian1 he2) 566-572
Jiande (建德 jian4 de2) 572-578
Xuanzheng (宣政 xuan1 zheng4) 578
宣帝 xuan1 di4 宇文贇 yu3 wen2 yun1 579 Dacheng (大成 da4 cheng2) 579
靜帝 jing4 di4 宇文闡 yu3 wen2 chan3 579-581 Daxiang (大象 da4 xiang4) 579-581
Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 581
Southern dynasty 420-589
Song Dynasty (420-479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name, sometimes except Liu Yu who was referred using personal name.
武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 劉裕 liu3 yu4 420-422 Yongchu (永初 yong3 chu1) 420-422
少帝 shao4 di4 劉義符 liu3 yi4 fu2 423-424 Jingping (景平 jing3 ping2) 423-424
文帝 wen2 di4 劉義隆 liu3 yi4 long2 424-453 Yuanjia (元嘉 yaun2 jia1) 424-453
孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 劉駿 liu3 jun4 454-464 Xiaojian (元嘉 xiao1 jian4) 454-456
Daming (大明 da4 ming2) 457-464
前廢帝 qian2 fei4 di4 劉子業 liu3 zi5 ye4 465 Yongguang (永光 yong3 guang1) 465
Jinghe (景和 jing3 he2) 465
明帝 ming2 di4 劉彧 liu3 yu4 465-472 Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 465-471
Taiyu (泰豫 tai4 yu4) 472
後廢帝 hou4 fei4 di4 or Cang Wu Wang|蒼梧王 cang1 wu2 wang2 劉昱 liu3 yu4 473-477 Yuanhui (元徽 yuan2 hui1) 473-477
順帝 shun4 di4 劉準 liu3 zhun3 477-479 Shengming (昇明 sheng1 ming2) 477-479
Qi Dynasty 479-502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name
高帝 gao1 di4 蕭道成 xiao1 dao4 cheng2 479-482 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 479-482
武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 蕭賾 xiao1 ze2 483-493 Yongming (永明 yong3 ming2) 483-493
鬱林王 yu4 lin2 wang2 蕭昭業 xiao1 zhao1 ye4 494 Longchang (隆昌 long2 chang1) 494
Hai Ling Wang (海陵王 hai3 ling2 wang2) 蕭昭文 xiao1 zhao1 wen2 494 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 494
明帝 ming2 di4 蕭鸞 xiao1 luan2 494-498 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 494-498
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 498
Dong Hun Hou (東昏侯 dong1 hun1 hou2) 蕭寶卷 xiao1 bao3 juan3 499-501 Yongyuan (永元 yong3 yuan2) 499-501
和帝 he2 di4 蕭寶融 xiao1 bao3 rong2 501-502 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 501-502
Liang Dynasty (502-557)
Convention: Liang + posthumous name
Wu Di (武帝 wu3 jing4 di4) Xiao Yan (蕭衍 xiao1 yan3) 502-549 Tianjian (天監 tian1 jian1) 502-519
Putong (普通 pu3 tong1) 520-527
Datong (大通 da4 tong1) 527-529
Zhongdatong (中大通 zhong1 da4 tong1) 529-534
Datong (大同 da4 tong2) 535-546
Zhongdatong (中大同 zhong1 da4 tong2) 546-547
Taiqing (太清 tai4 qing1) 547-549
Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) 蕭綱 xiao1 gang1 549-551 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 550-551
Yu Zhang Wang (豫章王 yu4 zhang1 wang2) 蕭棟 xiao1 dong4 551-552 Tianzheng (天正 tian1 zheng4) 551-552
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) 蕭繹 xiao1 yi4 552-555 Chengsheng (承聖 cheng2 sheng4) 552-555
Zhen Yang Hou (貞陽侯 zhen1 yang2 hou2) 蕭淵明 xiao1 yuan1 ming2 555 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 555
敬帝 jing4 di4 蕭方智 xiao1 fang1 zhi4 555-557 Shaotai (紹泰 shao4 tai4) 555-556
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 556-557
Chen Dynasty 557-589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name
武帝 wu3 di4 陳霸先 chen2 ba4 xian1 557-559 Yongding (永定 yong3 ding4) 557-559
文帝 wen2 di4 陳蒨 chen2 qian4 560-566 Tianjia (天嘉 tian1 jia1) 560-566
Tiankang (天康 tian1 kang1) 566
廢帝 (Feì Dì) or 臨海王 (Lín Hǎi Wáng) 陳伯宗 chen2 bo2 zong1 567-568 Guangda (光大 guang1 da4) 567-568
宣帝 xuan1 di4 陳頊 chen2 xu1 569-582 Taijian (太建 tai4 jian4) 569-582
後主 hou4 zhu3 陳叔寶 chen2 shu2 bao3 583-589 Zhide (至德 zhi4 de2) 583-586
Zhenming (禎明 zhen1 ming2) 587-589

Nan (Southern) Liang Dynasty 555-587
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: Nan (Southern) Liang + posthumous name
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang Dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang Dynasty.
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) 宣帝 xuan1 di4 蕭詧 xiao1 cha2 555-562 Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 555-562
Shi Zong (世4宗 zhong1 zong1) 孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 蕭巋 xiao1 kui1 562-585 Tianbao (天保 tian1 bao3) 562-585
Did not exist Xiao Jing Di>孝靜帝 xiao4 jing4 di4 or Ju Gong|莒公 ju3 gong1 蕭琮 xiao1 cong2 585-587 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 585-587

Sui Dynasty

Sui Dynasty 581-618
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Sui" + posthumous name
Wen Di 文帝 wen2 di4 楊堅 yang2 jian1 581-604 Kaihuang (開皇 kai1 huang2) 581-600
Renshou (仁壽 ren2 shou4) 601-604
Yang Di 煬帝 yang2 di4 楊廣 yang2 guang3 605-617 Daye (大業 da4 ye4) 605-617
Gong Di 恭帝 gong1 di4 楊侑 yang2 you4 617-618 Yining (義寧 yi4 ning2) 617-618

Tang Dynasty

For a list of Tang emperors on a separate page, click here.
Tang Dynasty 618-690, 705-907
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟;號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Tang" + temple name
Gao Zu (Kao-Tsu) (高祖 gao1 zu3) 李淵 li3 yuan1 618-626 Wude (武德 wu3 de2) 618-626
Tai Zong (Tai-Tsung) (太宗 tai4 zong1) 李世民 li3 shi4 min2 627-649 Zhenguan (貞觀 zhen1 guan1) 627-649
Gao Zong (Kao-Tsung) (高宗 gao1 zong1) 李治 li3 zhi4 650-683 Yonghui (永徽 yong3 hui1) 650-655
Xianqing (顯慶 xian3 qing4) 656-661
Longshuo (龍朔 long2 shuo4) 661-663
Linde (麟德 lin2 de2) 664-665
Qianfeng (乾封 qian2 feng1) 666-668
Zongzhang (總章 zong3 zhang1) 668-670
Xianheng (咸亨 xian2 heng1) 670-674
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 674-676
Yifeng (儀鳳 yi2 feng4) 676-679
Tiaolu (調露 tiao2 lu4) 679-680
Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 680-681
Kaiyao (開耀 kai1 yao4) 681-682
Yongchun (永淳 yong3 chun2) 682-683
Hongdao (弘道 hong2 dao4) 683
Zhong Zong (Chung-Tsung) (中宗 zhong1 zong1) 李顯 li3 xian3 or Li Zhe|李哲 li3 zhe2 684, 705-710 Sisheng (嗣聖 si4 sheng4) 684
Shenlong (神龍 shen2 long2) 705-707
Jinglong (景龍 jing3 long2) 707-710
Rui Zong (Jui-Tsung) (睿宗 rui4 zong1) 李旦 li3 dan4 684-690, 710-712 Wenming (文明 wen2 ming2) 684-690
Jingyun (景雲 jing3 yun2) 710-711
Taiji (太極 tai4 ji2) 712
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 712
Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD)
Convention: family name + posthumous name
Wu Ze Tian (武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1) (no official temple name) 聖神 sheng4 shen2 690-705 Tianshou (天授 tian1 shou4) 690-692
Ruyi (如意 ru2 yi4) 692
Changshou (長壽 chang2 shou4) 692-694
Yanzai (延載 yan2 zai4) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖 zheng4 sheng4) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲 tian1 ce4 wan4 sui4) 695-696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封 wan4 sui4 deng1 feng1) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天 wan4 sui4 tong1 tian1) 696-697
Shengong (神功 shen2 gong1) 697
Shengli (聖曆 sheng4 li4) 698-700
Jiushi (久視 jiu3 shi4) 700
Daju (大足 da4 ju2) 701
Changan (長安 chang2 an1) 701-705
Continuation of Tang Dynasty
Shang Di (殤帝 shang1 di4) see note below the table 李重茂 li3 chong2 mao4 710 Tanglong (唐隆 tang2 long2) 710
Xuan Zong (玄宗 xuan2 zong1) 李隆基 li3 long2 ji1 712-756 Xiantian (先天 xian1 tian1) 712-713
Kaiyuan (開元 kai1 yuan2) 713-741
Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 742-756
Su Zong (肅宗 su4 zong1) 李亨 li3 heng1 756-762 Jide (至德 zhi4 de2) 756-758
Qianyuan (乾元 qian2 yuan2) 758-760
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 760-761
Dai Zong (代宗 dai4 zong1) 李豫 li3 yu4 762-779 Baoying (寶應 bao3 ying4) 762-763
Guangde (廣德 guang3 de2) 763-764
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 765-766
Dali (大曆 da4 li4) 766-779
De Zong (德宗 de2 zong1) 李适 li3 gua1 780-805 Jianzhong (建中 1jian4 zhong1) 780-783
Xingyuan (興元 xing1 yuan2) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元 zhen1 yuan2) 785-805
Shun Zong (順宗 shun4 zong1) 李誦 li3 song4 805 Yongzhen (永貞 yong3 zhen1) 805
Xian Zong (憲宗 xian4 zong1) 李純 li3 chun2 806-820 Yuanhe (元和 yuan2 he2) 806-820
Mu Zong (穆宗 mu4 zong1) 李恆 li3 heng2 821-824 Changqing (長慶 chang2 qing4) 821-824
Jing Zong (敬宗 jing4 zong1) 李湛 li3 zhan4 824-826 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 824-826
Wen Zong (文宗 wen2 zong1) 李昂 li3 ang2 826-840 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 826
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) or Taihe (tai4 he2 太和) 827-835
Kaicheng (開成 kai1 cheng2) 836-840
Wu Zong (武宗 wu3 zong1) 李炎 li3 yan2 840-846 Huichang (會昌 hui4 chang1) 841-846
Xuan Zong (宣宗 xuan1 zong1) 李忱 li3 chen2 846-859 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 847-859
Yi Zong (懿宗 yi4 zong1) 李漼 li3 cui3 859-873 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 859
Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 860-873
Xi Zong (僖宗 xi1 zong1) 李儇 li3 xuan1 873-888 Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 873-874
Qianfu (乾符 qian2 fu2) 874-879
Guangming (廣明 guang3 ming2) 880-881
Zhonghe (中和 zhong1 he2) 881-885
Guangqi (光啟 guang1 qi3) 885-888
Wende (文德 wen2 de2) 888
Zhao Zong (昭宗 zhao1 zong1) 李曄 li3 ye4 888-904 Longji (龍紀 long2 ji4) 889
Dashun (大順 da4 shun4) 890-891
Jingfu (景福 jing3 fu2) 892-893
Qianning (乾寧 qian2 ning2) 894-898
Guanghua (光化 guang1 hua4) 898-901
Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 901-904
Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904
Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) or 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 see note below 李柷 li3 zhu4 904-907 Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904-907
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4), Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) and 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 are posthumous names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907-960
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang Dynasty 907-923
太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Wen>朱溫 zhu1 wen1 907-912 Kaiping (開平 kai1 ping2) 907-911
Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 911-912
Did not exist 末帝 mo4 di4 Zhu Zhen>朱瑱 zhu1 zhen4 913-923 Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 913-915
Zhenming (貞明 zhen1 ming2) 915-921 Longde (龍德 long2 de2) 921-923
Hou (Later) Tang Dynasty 923-936
莊宗 zhuang1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 李存勗 li3 cun2 xu4 923-926 Tongguang (同光 tong2 guang1) 923-926
明宗 ming2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 李嗣源 li3 si4 yuan2 or Li Dan|李亶 li3 dan3 926-933 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 926-930
Changxing (長興 chang2 xing1) 930-933
Did not exist 節閔帝 min3 di4 李從厚 li3 cong2 hou4 933-934 Yingshun (應順 ying4 shun4) 913-915
Did not exist 末帝 mo4 di4 李從珂 li3 cong2 ke1 934-936 Qingtai (清泰 qing1 tai4) 934-936
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936-947
高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 石敬瑭 shi4 jing4 tang2 936-942 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 936-942
Did not exist 出帝 chu1 di4 石重貴 shi4 chong2 gui4 942-947 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 942-944
Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 944-947
Hou (Later) Han Dynasty 947-950
高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 劉知遠 liu3 zhi1 yuan3 947-948 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 947
Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948
Did not exist 隱帝 yin3 di4 劉承祐 liu3 cheng2 you4 948-950 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948-950
Hou (Later) Zhou Dynasty 951-960
太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 郭威 guo1 wei1 951-954 Guangshun (廣順 guang3 shun4) 951-954
Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 柴榮 chai2 rong2 954-959 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954-959
Did not exist 恭帝 gong1 di4 柴宗訓 chai2 zong1 xun4 959-960 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 959-960
the Ten Kingdoms
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 904-978
太祖 tai4 zu3 武肅王 wu3 su4 wang2 錢鏐 qian2 liu2 904-932 Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 908-923
Baoda (寶大 bao3 da4) 923-925
Baozheng (寶正 bao3 zheng4) 925-932
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) 文穆王 wen2 mu4 wang2 錢元瓘 qian2 yuan2 guan4 932-941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong 成宗 cheng2 zong1) 忠獻王 zhong1 xian4 wang2 錢佐 qian2 zuo3 941-947 Did not exist
Did not exist 忠遜王 zhong1 xun4 wang2 錢倧 qian2 zong1 947 Did not exist
Did not exist 忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 錢俶 qian2 chu4 947-978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 909-945 including Yin Kingdom 943-945
太祖 tai4 zu3 忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 王審知 wang2 shen3 zhi1 909-925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 王延翰 wang2 yan2 han4 925-926 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) 王延鈞 wang2 yan2 jun1 926-935 Longqi (龍啟 long2 qi3) 933-935
Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 935
Kang Zong (康宗 kang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 王繼鵬 wang2 ji4 peng2 935-939 Tongwen (通文 tong1 wen2) 936-939
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 王延羲 wang2 yan2 xi1 939-944 Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 939-944
Did not exist Tian De Di (天德帝 tian1 de2 di4) (as Emperor of Yin) 王延政 wang2 yan2 zheng4 943-945 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 943-945
Jing Nan or Nan Ping Kingdom 906-963
Did not exist 武信王 wu3 xin4 wang2 高季興 gao1 ji4 xing1 909-928 Did not exist
Did not exist 文獻王 wen2 xin4 wang2 高從誨 gao1 cong2 hui4 928-948 Did not exist
Did not exist 貞懿王 yi4 wang2 高寶融 gao1 bao3 rong2 948-960 Did not exist
Did not exist 侍中 shi4 zhong1 高寶勗 gao1 bao3 xu4 960-962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 高繼沖 gao1 ji4 chong1 962-963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 897-951
Did not exist 武穆王 wu3 mo4 wang2 馬殷 ma3 yin1 897-930 Did not exist
Did not exist 衡陽王 heng2 yang2 wang2 馬希聲 ma3 xi1 sheng1 930-932 Did not exist
Did not exist 文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2 馬希範 ma3 xi1 fan4 932-947 Did not exist
Did not exist 廢王 fei4 wang2 馬希廣 ma3 xi1 guang3 947-950 Did not exist
Did not exist 恭孝王 gong1 xiao4 wang2 馬希萼 ma3 xi1 e4 950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 馬希崇 ma3 xi1 chong2 950-951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 904-937
太祖 tai4 zu3 孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4 楊行密 yang2 xing2 mi4 904-905 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 904-905
烈宗 lie4 zong1 景帝 jing3 di4 楊渥 yang2 wo4 905-908 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 905-908
高祖 gao1 zu3 宣帝 xuan1 di4 楊隆演 yang2 long2 yan3 908-921 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 908-919
Wuyi (武義 wu3 yi4) 919-921
Did not exist 睿帝 rui4 di4 楊溥 yang2 pu3 921-937 Shunyi (順義 shun4 yi4) 921-927
Qianzhen (乾貞 qian2 zhen1) 927-929
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) 929-935
Tianzuo (天祚 tian1 zuo4) 935-937
Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 937-975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Hou Zhu|李後主 li3 hou4 zhu3.
先主 xian1 zhu3 or Lie Zu|烈祖 lie4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 李 (曰 on top of 弁) li3 bian4 937-943 Shengyuan (昇元 sheng1 yuan2) 937-943
中主 zhong1 zhu3 or Yuan Zong|元宗 yuan2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 李璟 li3 jing3 943-961 Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 943-958
Jiaotai (交泰 jiao1 tai4) 958
Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 958
Hou Zhu>後主 hou4 zhu3 武王 wu3 wang2 李煜 li3 yu4 961-975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 917-971
高祖 gao1 zu3 天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4 劉巖 liu3 yan2 or Liu Yan|劉 (龍 on top of 天) liu3 yan3 917-925 Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 917-925
Bailong (白龍 bai2 long2) 925-928
Dayou (大有 da4 you3) 928-941
Did not exist 殤帝 shang1 di4 劉玢 liu3 fen1 941-943 Guangtian (光天 guag1 tian1) 941-943
中宗 zhong1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 劉晟 liu3 cheng2 943-958 Yingqian (應乾 ying4 qian2) 943
Qianhe (乾和 qian4 he2) 943-958
後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist 劉鋹 liu3 chang3 958-971 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 958-971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 951-979
世祖 shi4 zu3 神武帝 shen2 wu3 di4 劉旻 liu3 min2 951-954 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 951-954
睿宗 rui4 zong1 孝和帝 xiao4 he2 di4 劉承鈞 liu3 cheng2 jun1 954-970 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 954-957
Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 957-970
少主 shao4 zhu3 Did not exist 劉繼恩 liu3 ji4 en1 970 Did not exist
Did not exist

英武帝 ying1 wu3 di4 劉繼元 liu3 ji4 yuan2 970-982 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 970-982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 907 - 925
高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 王建 wang2 jian4 907-918 Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 907
Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng22) 908-910
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 911-915
Tongzheng (通正 tong1 zheng4) 916
Tianhan (天漢 tian1 han4) 917
Guangtian (光天 guang1 tian1) 918
後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist 王衍 wang2 yan3 918-925 Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 918-925
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 925
Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 934 - 965
高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 孟知祥 meng4 zhi1 xiang2 934 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934
後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist 孟昶 meng4 chang3 938-965 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934-938
Guangzheng (廣政 guang3 zheng4) 938-965

Independent Regimes during Ten Kingdoms

local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Captaincy General of Wuping/Hunan (武平/湖南節度使)
Captain General of Wuping>武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 劉言 liu3 yan2 950-953
Captain General of Wuping>武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 王逵 wang2 kui2 or Wang Jin Kui|王進逵 wang2 jin4 kui2 953-956
Captain General of Hunan>湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 周行逢 zhao1 xing2 feng2 956-962
Captain General of Hunan>湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 周保權 zhao1 bao3 quan2 962-963
Captaincy General of Quanzhang (泉漳節度使)
Captain General of Quanzhang>泉漳都指揮使 quan2 zhang1 du1 zhi3 hui1 shi3 留從效 liu2 cong2 xiao4 945-962
Captain General of Quanzhang>泉漳留守 quan2 zhang1 liu2 shou3 留紹鎡 liu2 shao4 zi1 962
Captain General of Quanzhang>泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 張漢思 zhang1 han4 si1 962-963
Captain General of Quanzhang>泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 陳洪進 chen2 hong2 jin4 963-978

Liao Dynasty

Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907-926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916-922
Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922-926
Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律德光 Yēlǜ Déguāng 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 927-938
Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 938-947
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947
Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947-951
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951-969
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xián 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969-979
Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979-982
Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lóngxù 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982
Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983-1012
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012-1021
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021-1031
Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn 1031-1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031-1032
Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032-1055
Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hóngjī 1055-1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055-1064
Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065-1074
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075-1084
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085-1094
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095-1101
Did not exist Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) 耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ 1101-1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101-1110
Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111-1120
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121-1125

Song Dynasty

For a list of Song emperors on a separate page, click here.

Song dynasty 960-1279
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty, 960- 1127
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuangyin (趙匡胤 Zhào Kuāngyìn) 960-976 Jianlong (建隆 Jiànlóng) 960-963
Qiande (乾德 Qiándé) 963-968
Kaibao (開寶 Kāibǎo) 968-976
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuangyi (趙匡義 Zhào Kuāngyì) or Zhao Guangyi (趙光義 Zhào Guāngyì) or Zhao Jiong (趙炅 Zhào Jiǒng) 976-997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國 Tàipíngxīngguó) 976-984
Yongxi (雍熙 Yōngxī) 984-987
Duangong (端拱 Duāngǒng) 988-989
Chunhua (淳化 Chúnhuà) 990-994
Zhidao (至道 Zhìdào) 995-997
Zhenzong (真宗 Zhēnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Heng (趙恆 Zhào Héng) 997-1022 Xianping (咸平 Xiánpíng) 998-1003
Jingde (景德 Jǐngdé) 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符 Dàzhōngxiángfú) 1008-1016
Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxǐ) 1017-1021
Qianxing (乾興 Qiánxīng) 1022
Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Zhen (趙禎 Zhào Zhēn) 1022-1063 Tiansheng (天聖 Tiānshèng) 1023-1032
Mingdao (明道 Míngdào) 1032-1033
Jingyou (景祐 Jǐngyòu) 1034-1038
Baoyuan (寶元 Bǎoyuán) 1038-1040
Kangding (康定 Kāngdìng) 1040-1041
Qingli (慶曆 Qìnglì) 1041-1048
Huangyou (皇祐 Huángyòu) 1049-1054
Zhihe (至和 Zhìhé) 1054-1056
Jiayou (嘉祐 Jiāyòu) 1056-1063
Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shu (趙曙 Zhào Shù) 1063-1067 Zhiping (治平 Zhìpíng) 1064-1067
Shenzong (神宗 Shénzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu (趙頊 Zhào Xū) 1067-1085 Xining (熙寧 Xīníng) 1068-1077
Yuanfeng (元豐 Yuánfēng) 1078-1085
Zhezong (哲宗 Zhézōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu (趙煦 Zhào Xǔ) 1085-1100 Yuanyou (元祐 Yuányòu) 1086-1094
Shaosheng (紹聖 Shàoshèng) 1094-1098
Yuanfu (元符 Yuánfú) 1098-1100
Huizong (徽宗 Huīzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Ji (趙佶 Zhào Jí) 1100-1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國 Jiànzhōngjìngguó) 1101
Chongning (崇寧 Chóngníng) 1102-1106
Daguan (大觀 Dàguān) 1107-1110
Zhenghe (政和 Zhènghé) 1111-1118
Chonghe (重和 Chónghé) 1118-1119
Xuanhe (宣和 Xuānhé) 1119-1125
Qinzong (欽宗 Qīnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Huan (趙桓 Zhào Huán) 1126-1127 Jingkang (靖康 Jìngkāng) 1125-1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty, 1127- 1279
Gaozong (高宗 Gāozōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Gou (趙構 Zhào Gòu) 1127-1162 Jingyan (建炎 Jiànyán) 1127-1130
Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) 1131-1162
Xiaozong (孝宗 Xiàozōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shen (趙昚 Zhào Shèn) 1162-1189 Longxing (隆興 Lóngxīng) 1163-1164
Qiandao (乾道 Qiándào) 1165-1173
Chunxi (淳熙 Chúnxī) 1174-1189
Guangzong (光宗 Guāngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Dun (趙惇 Zhào Dūn) 1189-1194 Shaoxi (紹熙 Shàoxī) 1190-1194
Ningzong (寧宗 Níngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuo (趙擴 Zháo Kuó) 1194-1224 Qingyuan (慶元 Qìngyuán) 1195-1200
Jiatai (嘉泰 Jiātài) 1201-1204
Kaixi (開禧 Kāixǐ) 1205-1207
Jiading (嘉定 Jiādìng) 1208-1224
Lizong (理宗 Lǐzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Yun (趙昀 Zhào Yún) 1224-1264 Baoqing (寶慶 Bǎoqìng) 1225-1227
Shaoding (紹定 Shàodìng) 1228-1233
Duanping (端平 Duānpíng) 1234-1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙 Jiāxī) 1237-1240
Chunyou (淳祐 Chúnyòu) 1241-1252
Baoyou (寶祐 Bǎoyòu) 1253-1258
Kaiqing (開慶 Kāiqìng) 1259
Jingding (景定 Jǐngdìng) 1260-1264
Duzong (度宗 Dùzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Qi (趙禥 Zhào Qí) 1264-1274 Xianchun (咸淳 Xiánchún) 1265-1274
did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 Gōngdì) Zhao Xian (趙顯 Zhào Xiǎn) 1274-1276 Deyou (德祐 Déyòu) 1275-1276
Duan Zong (端宗 Duān Zōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi (趙昰 Zhào Shì) 1276-1278 Jingyan (景炎 Jǐngyán) 1276-1278
did not exist Di (帝 Dì) or Wei Wang (衛王 Wèiwáng) Zhao Bing (趙昺 Zhào Bǐng) 1278-1279 Xiangxing (祥興 Xiángxīng) 1278-1279

Western Xia

Western Xia 1032-1227
Temple names Posthumous names Chinese family name and first names Reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: "Western Xia" + temple name or "family name + first names"
Jǐngzōng
(景宗)
Wǔlièdì
(武烈帝)
Lǐ Yuánhào
(李元昊)
1032-1048 Xiǎndào (顯道) 1032-1034
Kāiyùn (開運) 1034
Guǎngpíng (廣平) 1035-1036
Dàqìng (大慶) 1036-1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò (天授禮法延祚) 1038-1048
Yìzōng
(毅宗)
Zhāoyīngdì
(昭英帝)
Lǐ Liàngzuò
(李諒祚)
1048-1067 Yánsìníngguó (延嗣寧國) 1048-1049
Tiānyòuchuíshèng (天祐垂聖) 1050-1052
Fúshèngchéngdào (福聖承道) 1053-1056
Duǒdū (奲都) 1036-1038
Gǒnghuà (拱化) 1063-1067
Huìzōng
(惠宗)
Kāngjìngdì
(康靖帝)
Lǐ Bǐngcháng
(李秉常)
1067-1086 Qiándào (乾道) 1067-1069
Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng (天賜禮盛國慶) 1070-1074
Dà'ān (大安) 1075-1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng (天安禮定) 1085-1086
Chóngzōng
(崇宗)
Shèngwéndì
(聖文帝)
Lǐ Qiánshùn
(李乾順)
1086-1139 Tiānyízhìpíng (天儀治平) 1086-1089
Tiānyòumín'ān (天祐民安) 1090-1097
Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098-1100
Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101-1113
Yōngníng (雍寧) 1114-1118
Yuándé (元德) 1119-1127
Zhèngdé (正德) 1127-1134
Dàdé (大德) 1135-1139
Rénzōng
(仁宗)
Shèngzhēndì
(聖禎帝)
Lǐ Rénxiào
(李仁孝)
1139-1193 Dàqìng (大慶) 1139-1143
Rénqìng (人慶) 1144-1148
Tiānshèng (天盛) 1149-1170
Qiányòu (乾祐) 1170-1193
Huánzōng
(桓宗)
Zhāojiǎnjì
(昭簡帝)
Lǐ Chúnyòu
(李純佑)
1193-1206 Tiānqìng (天慶) 1193-1206
Xiāngzōng
(襄宗)
Jǐngwǔdì
(景武帝)
Lǐ Ānquán
(李安全)
1206-1211 Qìngtiān (慶天) 1206-1209
Huángjiàn (皇建) 1210-1211
Shénzōng
(神宗)
Yīngwéndì
(英文帝)
Lǐ Zūnxū
(李遵頊)
1211-1223 Guāngdìng (光定) 1211-1223
Xiànzōng
(獻宗)
Did not exist Lǐ Déwàng
(李德旺)
1223-1226 Qiándìng (乾定) 1223-1226
Mòzhǔ
(末主)
Did not exist Lǐ Xiàn
(李晛)
1226-1227 Bǎoyì (寶義) 1226-1227

Jin Dynasty

Jin Dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Tàizǔ
太祖
(1) Wányán Āgǔdǎ
完顏阿骨打
1115-1123 Shōuguó
收國
1115-1116
 
Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117-1123
Tàizōng
太宗
(1) Wányán Wúqǐmǎi
完顏吳乞買
or
Wányán (Shèng or Chéng)
完顏晟
1123-1134 Tiānhuì
天會
1123-1134
Xīzōng
熙宗
(1) Wányán Hélá
完顏合剌
or
Wányán Dǎn
完顏亶
1135-1149 Tiānhuì
天會
1135-1138
 
Tiānjuàn
天眷
1138-1141
 
Huángtǒng
皇統
1141-1149
(2) Hǎilíngwáng
海陵王

Wányán Liàng
完顏亮
1149-1161 Tiāndé
天德
1149-1153
 
Zhènyuán
貞元
1153-1156
 
Zhènglóng
正隆
1156-1161
Shìzōng
世宗
(1) Wányán Yōng
完顏雍
1161-1189 Dàdìng
大定
1161-1189
Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Wányán Jǐng
完顏璟
1190-1208 Míngchāng
明昌
1190-1196
 
Chéng'ān
承安
1196-1200
 
Tàihé
泰和1200-1208
(2) Wèishàowáng
衛紹王
or
Wèiwáng
衛王
Wányán Yǒngjì
完顏永濟
1209-1213 Dà'ān
大安
1209-1212
 
Chóngqìng
崇慶
1212-1213
 
Zhìníng
至寧
1213
Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wányán Xún
完顏珣
1213-1223 Zhēnyòu
貞祐
1213-1217
 
Xīngdìng
興定
1217-1222
 
Yuánguāng
元光
1222-1223
Āizōng
哀宗
(1) Wányán Shǒuxù
完顏守緒
1224-1234 Zhèngdà
正大
1224-1232
 
Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232-1234
(2)

Mòdì
末帝
Wányán Chénglín
完顏承麟
1234 (2)
(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist

Yuan Dynasty

Temple names Posthumous names Khan Names Given names Period of Reigns Era names and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khubilai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame, or Tamerlane.
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin (孛兒只斤鐵木真 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmùzhēn) 1206-1227 did not exist
Ruizong (睿宗 Ruìzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Tolui Borjigin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 BóérzhījīnTuōléi) 1228 did not exist
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei (孛兒只斤窩闊台 Bóérzhījīn Wōkuòtái) 1229-1241 did not exist
Dingzong (定宗 Dìngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük (孛兒只斤貴由 Bóérzhījīn Guìyuó) 1246-1248 did not exist
Xianzong (憲宗 Xiànzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke (孛兒只斤蒙哥 Bóérzhījīn Ménggē) 1251-1259 did not exist
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai (孛兒只斤忽必烈 Bóérzhījīn Hūbìliè) 1260-1294 Zhongtong (中統 Zhōngtǒng) 1260-1264
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1264-1294
Chengzong (成宗 Chéngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Temür Öljeytü Khân Borjigin Temür (孛兒只斤鐵穆耳 Bóérzhījīn Tiěmù'ěr) 1294-1307 Yuanzhen (元貞 Yuánzhēn) 1295-1297
Dade (大德 Dàdé) 1297-1307
Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Qayshan Gülük Borjigin Qayshan (孛兒只斤海山 Bóérzhījīn Hǎishān) 1308-1311 Zhida (至大 Zhìdà) 1308-1311
Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Ayurparibhadra Borjigin Ayurparibhadra (孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 Bóérzhījīn Àiyùlíbálìbādá) 1311-1320 Huangqing (皇慶 Huángqìng) 1312-1313
Yanyou (延祐 Yányòu) 1314-1320
Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Suddhipala Gege'en Borjigin Suddhipala (孛兒只斤碩德八剌 Bóérzhījīn Shuòdébālá) 1321-1323 Zhizhi (至治 Zhìzhì) 1321-1323
did not exist (1) Taiding Di (泰定帝 Tàidìng Dì) (2) Yesün-Temür Borjigin Yesün-Temür (孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Yěsūntiěmùér) 1323-1328 Taiding (泰定 Tàidìng) 1321-1328
Zhihe (致和 Zhìhé) 1328
did not exist (1) Tianshun Di (天順帝 Tiānshùn Dì) (2) Arigaba Borjigin Arigaba (孛兒只斤阿速吉八 Bóérzhījīn Āsùjíbā) 1328 Tianshun (天順 Tiānshùn) 1328
Wenzong (文宗 Wénzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Jijaghatu Toq-Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür (孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér) 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Tianli (天曆 Tiānlì) 1328-1330
Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1330-1332
Mingzong (明宗 Míngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Qoshila Qutuqtu Borjigin Qoshila (孛兒只斤和世剌 Bóérzhījīn Héshìlà) 1329 did not exist
Ningzong (寧宗 Níngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Irinchibal Borjigin Irinchibal (孛兒只斤懿璘質班 Bóérzhījīn Yìlínzhìbān) 1332 Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1332
Huizong (惠宗 Huìzōng) (1) Shundi (順帝 Shùndì) Toghan-Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér) 1333-1370 Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1333
Yuantong (元統 Yuántǒng) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhìzhèng) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1368-1370
(1) Convention: for these souverigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì. (2) Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name.

Northern Yuan Dynasty (after expulsion from China by Ming in 1368) 1368 - early 15th century
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Khan Names Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use khan names or born names.
Note: 1) />2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names. 2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Huizong (惠宗 Huìzōng) (same person as the last Yuan emperor in China) Shundi (順帝 Shùndì) Toghan-Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér) 1333-1370 Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1333
Yuantong (元統 Yuántǒng) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhìzhèng) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1368-1370
Zhaozong (昭宗 Zhāozōng) did not exist Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara of the Borjigin clan (孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘 Bóérzhījīn Àiyùshílǐdálà) 1370-1378 Xuanguang (宣光 Xuānguāng) 1371-1378
did not exist did not exist Usakhal Khan Tögüs Temür of the Borjigin clan (孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 Bóérzhījīn Tuōgǔsī Tiěmùér) 1378-1387 Tianguang (天光 Tiānguāng) 1378-1387
(1) Convention: for these souvereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì. For the later Mongol Khans, see List of Mongol Khans

Ming Dynasty

To see the Ming dynasty emperors on a separate page, check here.

Personal Name Posthumous name1
(short form)
Temple name1 Reign name Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Zhū Yuánzhāng
朱元璋
Gāodì
高帝
Tàizǔ
太祖
Hóngwǔ
洪武
1368-1398 The Hongwu Emperor
Zhū Yǔnwén
朱允炆
Huìdì
惠帝
None given² Jiànwén
建文
1398-1402 The Jianwen Emperor
Zhū Dì
朱棣
Wēndì
文帝
Chéngzǔ, 成祖 or
Tàizōng, 太宗
Yǒnglè
永樂
1402-1424 The Yongle Emperor
Zhū Gāochì
朱高熾
Zhāodì
昭帝
Rénzōng
仁宗
Hóngxī
洪熙
1424-1425 The Hongxi Emperor
Zhū Zhānjī
朱瞻基
Zhāngdì
章帝
Xuānzōng
宣宗
Xuāndé
宣德
1425-1435 The Xuande Emperor
Zhū Qízhèn
朱祁鎮
Ruìdì
睿帝
Yīngzōng
英宗
Zhèngtǒng, 正統
1436-1449;
Tiānshùn, 天順
1457-1464
1435-1449;
1457-1464³
The Zhengtong Emperor
Zhū Qíyù
朱祁鈺
Jǐngdì
景帝
Dàizōng
代宗
Jǐngtài
景泰
1449-1457 The Jingtai Emperor
Zhū Jiànshēn
朱見深
Chúndì
純帝
Xiànzōng
憲宗
Chénghuà
成化
1464-1487 The Chenghua Emperor
Zhū Yòutáng
朱祐樘
Jìngdì
敬帝
Xiàozōng
孝宗
Hóngzhì
弘治
1487-1505 The Hongzhi Emperor
Zhū Hòuzhào
朱厚照
Yìdì
毅帝
Wǔzōng
武宗
Zhèngdé
正德
1505-1521 The Zhengde Emperor
Zhū Hòucōng
朱厚熜
Sùdì
肅帝
Shìzōng
世宗
Jiājìng
嘉靖
1521-1566 The Jiajing Emperor
Zhū Zǎihòu
朱載垕
Zhuāngdì
莊帝
Mùzōng
穆宗
Lóngqìng
隆慶
1566-1572 The Longqing Emperor
Zhū Yìjūn
朱翊鈞
Xiǎndì
顯帝
Shénzōng
神宗
Wànlì
萬曆
1572-1620 The Wanli Emperor
Zhū Chángluò
朱常洛
Zhēndì
貞帝
Guāngzōng
光宗
Tàichāng
泰昌
1620 The Taichang Emperor
Zhū Yóujiào
朱由校
Zhédì
悊帝
Xīzōng
熹宗
Tiānqǐ
天啓
1620-1627 The Tianqi Emperor
Zhū Yóujiǎn
朱由檢
Zhuānglièmǐnhuángdì
莊烈愍皇帝
Sīzōng, 思宗 or
Yìzōng, 毅宗
Chóngzhēn
崇禎
1627-1644 The Chongzhen Emperor
1 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.
2 The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him.
3 After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother, the Jingtai emperor, assumed the throne and, a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However, the Zhengtong emperor was able to reclaim his position upon the death of his brother, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun Dynasty 大順王朝

This is the state set up by the peasants' rebellion. The Ming forces were destroyed by the Shun rebels, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.
Personal Name Temple name Reign name Reign years
Li Zicheng
李自成
Chuǎng Wáng
闖王
Yung Chang
永昌
1644

Southern Ming Dynasty 南明政權

This is the regime established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.
Personal Name Temple name Reign name Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Zhū Yóusōng
朱由崧
Ānzōng
安宗
Hóngguāng
弘光
1644-1645 Prince of Fu
福王 Fú Wáng
Zhū Yùjiàn
朱聿鍵
Shàozōng
紹宗
Lóngwǔ
隆武
1645-1646 Prince of Tang
唐王 Táng Wáng
Zhū Chángfāng
朱常淓
None given None given,
but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Luh)
潞王臨國 Lù Wáng Lín Guó
1645 Prince of Lu (Luh*)
潞王 Lù Wáng
Zhū Yǐhǎi
朱以海
None given None given,
but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Lou)
魯王臨國 Lǔ Wáng Lín Guó
1645-1653 Prince of Lu (Lou*)
魯王 Lǔ Wáng
Zhū Yùyuè
朱聿[金粵]
None given Shàowǔ
紹武
1646 Prince of Tang (Shaowu)
唐王 Táng Wáng
Zhū Yóuláng
朱由榔
None given Yǒnglì
永曆
1646-1662 Prince of Gui
桂王 Guì Wáng
* The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing Dynasty

To see the Qing dynasty emperors on a separate page, check here.

Given name1 Posthumous name²
(short form)
Temple name² Reign name
Chinese, Manchu
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Nurhaci
努爾哈赤
pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāchì
Gāodì
高帝
Tàizǔ
太祖
Tiānmìng
天命
Abkai fulingga
1616-1626³ Nurhaci
Hong Taiji4
皇太極
pinyin: Huángtàijí
Wéndì
文帝
Tàizōng
太宗
Tiāncōng
天聰
Abkai sure
1627-1636;
Chóngdé
崇德
Wesihun erdemungge
1636-1643
1626-1643 Huang Taiji
Fúlín
福臨
Zhāngdì
章帝
Shìzǔ
世祖
Shùnzhì
順治
Ijishūn dasan
1643-16615 Shunzhi Emperor
Xuányè
玄燁
Réndì
仁帝
Shèngzǔ
聖祖
Kāngxī
康熙
Elhe taifin
1661-1722 Kangxi Emperor
Yìnzhēn
胤禛
Xiàndì
憲帝
Shìzōng
世宗
Yōngzhèng
雍正
Hūwaliyasun tob
1722-1735 Yongzheng Emperor
Hónglì
弘曆
Chúndì
純帝
Gāozōng
高宗
Qiánlóng
乾隆
Abkai wehiyehe
1735-1796
(died 1799)6
Qianlong Emperor
Yóngyǎn
顒琰
Ruìdì
睿帝
Rénzōng
仁宗
Jiāqìng
嘉慶
Saicungga fengšen
1796-1820 Jiaqing Emperor
Mínníng
旻寧
Chéngdì
成帝
Xuānzōng
宣宗
Dàoguāng
道光
Doro eldengge
1820-1850 Daoguang Emperor
Yìzhǔ
奕詝
Xiǎndì
顯帝
Wénzōng
文宗
Xiánfēng
咸豐
Gubci elgiyengge
1850-1861 Xianfeng Emperor
Zǎichún
載淳
Yìdì
毅帝
Mùzōng
穆宗
Tóngzhì
同治
Yooningga dasan
1861-18757 Tongzhi Emperor
Zǎitián
載湉
Jǐngdì
景帝
Dézōng
德宗
Guāngxù
光緒
Badarangga doro
1875-19087 Guangxu Emperor
Pǔyí
溥儀
also known as Henry
Xùndì 8
遜帝
None given 9 Xuāntǒng
宣統
Gehungge yoso
1908-192410
(died 1967)
Xuantong Emperor
1 The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Pu-yi.
9 In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Pu-yi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 The Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, and the last emperor, Pu-yi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Pu-yi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Pu-yi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Pu-yi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Pu-yi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Pu-yi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934-1945).

Taiping Rebellion 太平天國

Personal name Reign name
年號
(nian hao)
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全
Yuánnián
元年
August, 1851 - May, 1864 Hong Xiuquan
Hong Tianguifu
洪天貴福
None given May, 1864 - August, 1864 Hong Tianguifu

Yuan Shikai's Empire of China 中華帝國

Personal name Reign name
年號
(nian hao)
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Hóngxiàn (Hung-hsien)
洪憲
1916 Yuan Shikai

External links

  • China Online Encyclopedia

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