It is documented that Senusret III conducted four military campaigns into Kush and established a line of forts within signalling distance of one another; Buhen being the northernmost and the others along the banks of the Nile were Mirgissa, Shalfak, Uronarti, Askut, Dabenarti, Semna, and Kumma. The Kushites captured Buhen during the 13th dynasty, and held it until Ahmose I recaptured it at the beginning of the 18th dynasty. It was stormed and recaptured by indigenous forces at the end of Egypt's 20th dynasty.
The triangular shaped fortress located on an island took advantage of the narrow passage of the Nile between the walls of a canyon. Amongst the series of protective fortresses, Uronarti was the second only to Askut as the smallest. Its fortifications included bastions, buttresses, ramparts, battlements, and loopholes. The walls of the fort were about five metres thick and ten metres high, with a length of approximately 120 metres and width of 60 metres. The literature speculates that the imposing fortresses constructed during this period exceeded the military requirement and may be considered a form of monumental architecture in the manner of the Giza pyramids or temple of Karnak.
Reisner, George A. and Noel F. Wheeler. Second Cataract Forts. Volume II: Uronarti,Shalfak, Mirgissa: Excavated by George Andrew Reisner and Noel F. Wheeler - Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 1967