Underpinning is accomplished by extending the foundation in depth or in breadth so it either rests on a stronger soil stratum or distributes its load across a greater area. Use of micropiles and jet grouting are common methods in underpinning. An alternative to underpinning is the strengthening of the soil by the introduction of a grout. All of these processes are generally expensive and elaborate.
Underpinning may be necessary where P class (problem) soils in certain areas of the site are encountered.
http://www.asuc.org.uk - Association of Specialist Underpinning Contractors
Towards a Theoretical Underpinning of the Book Arts: Applying Bakhtin's Dialogism and Heteroglossia to Selected Examples of the Artist's book/ Ondersoek Na 'N Teoretiese Onderskraging Van Boekkuns: Die Toepassing Van Bakhtin Se Dialogisme En Heteroglossia Op Geselekteerde Voorbeelde Van Kunstenaarsboeke
Apr 01, 2012; Recent research projects and conferences devoted to the book arts have responded to Johanna Drucker's 2005 call that a more...
US Patent Issued to Cable Lock on Dec. 28 for "Underpinning Pile Assembly for Supporting a Structure Upon the Earth and Process for Installing Such Underpinning Pile Assembly" (Texas Inventor)
Jan 02, 2011; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Jan. 2 -- United States Patent no. 7,857,549, issued on Dec. 28, was assigned to Cable Lock Inc. (Houston)....